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Pos. I: Mod 7-14

Study notes for modules 7-14 from Pos. I (Exam #2)

QuestionAnswer
What 2 projections will you perform for a non-trauma humerus? AP & Lateral
What 2 structures are primarily demonstrated in the non-trauma AP of humerus? Humeral head & greater tubercle
What structure is primarily demonstrated in the non-trauma lateral of humerus? Lesser tubercle
Is the medial epicondyle above the the radius or ulna while in the AP projection? Ulna.The lateral epicondyle is above the radius while in the AP projection.
While perfomring either the AP or lateral of humerus, where should the CR be positioned? Perpendicular to the midpoint of humerus.
While performing either the AP or lateral of humerus, what is the respiration factor?Inspiration, exhalation or suspended? Suspended
Is the liver primarily on the left or right side of body? Right side - there are 2 lobes: left and right, however, the right is larger and takes up the entire top right side just below diaphragm.
What side is the stomach on? Left side
What side of body are these organs? Left, right or middle?Spleen?Pancreas?Ascending Colon?Descending Colon?Transverse Colon?Appendix? Spleen - left (next to stomach).Pancreas - middle - between stomach and transverse colon.Ascending colon- right side.Descending colon - left side.Transverse colon - left-middle-rightAppendix - right side under ascending colon.
What is the most common x-ray procedure? Chest
What is the 2nd most common x-ray procedure? Abdomen
In which abdomen projection will you see air/fluid lines that are straight and evened-out? AP Upright. Supine will show air and fluid pockets that are more rounded in shape.
Where will the CR be positioned for the abdomen AP Supine? Perpendicular to the median sagittal plane at the level of the illium crest.
What two projections will you perform for abdomen obstruction? AP upright & AP supine.
What 3 projections will you perform for abdomen free-air series? PA Chest, PA or AP Upright Abdomen and Left Lateral Decubitus.
What color is air on a radiographic film of abdomen? Black
What color is fluid on a radiographic film of abdomen? White-ish or lighter than air
Where will the CR be positioned for the abdomen AP upright? Perpendicular to the median sagittal plane at the level 2 inches above the ilium crest to include the diaphragm.
Why is the left side down for a left-lateral decubitus? Because the stomach needs to be out of the way.
What structures are demonstrated during the AP projection of shoulder WITH EXTERNAL ROTATION OF HUMERUS? Humeral head and greater tubercle in profile.
What structures are demonstrated during the AP projection of shoulder WITH INTERNAL ROTATION OF HUMERUS? True lateral projection of humerus; lesser tubercle in profile.
Dislocation is easily identified with this shoulder projection. PA Oblique Scapular "Y"
Where should the CR be positioned for the AP projection w/external rotation and w/internal rotation of humerus (FOR SHOULDER)? Perpendicular to a point 1" inferior to coracoid process.
What structures are demonstrated during the Grashey method of shoulder? Joint space between humeral head and glenoid cavity (scapulohumeral joint).
Where should CR be positioned for Grashey method? Perpendicular to glenoid cavity, 2" medial and 2" inferior to superolateral border of shoulder.
What kind of bone is the scapula Flat bone
The clavicle is one of two bones which form the true shoulder girdle. It has two extremities. What are they? Acromial extremity (on lateral aspect) and sternal extremity (on medial aspect).
Why is the clavicle doubly curved? Fro strength
What are the two projections for the clavicle? AP and AP Axial.
Where should the CR be positioned for CLAVICLE AP and Axial projections (different)? AP: Perpendicular to midshaft of clavicle.AP Axial: CEPHALIC angle of 15 - 30 degrees toward midshaft of clavicle.
Of the two clavicle projections, which will demonstrate 1/2 clavicle above scapula and 1/2 clavicle over ribcage? AP
What structures are demonstrated during the AP axial projection? Axial image of clavicle PROJECTED ABOVE RIBS.
What kind of bone is the scapula? Flat bone.
The scapula has 2 surfaces, 3 borders and 3 angles. Name the borders and angles. Borders: superior, medial and lateral.Angles: Superior, inferior and lateral.
What are the two projectons for the scapula (either supine or upright)? AP and Lateral "Y".
What does the AP projection of scapula demonstrate? AP of scapula with lateral portion free of superimposition with ribs.
What does the lateral projection of scapula demonstrate? TRUE LATERAL IMAGE OF SCAPULA with lateral and medial borders superimposed.
Where should the CR be positioned for the AP of scapula? Midscapular area, perpendicular to 2" inferior to coracoid process.
Where should the CR be positioned for the AP lateral "Y" of scapula? Perpendicular to mid-medial border of scapula.
For this projection of the scapula, you will ask the patient to lift is arm and make a "muscle-like" action. The AP projection.
For the scapula:a) What structures are most superior?b) What structure is most posterior?c) What structure is most anterior?d) What structure is most inferior?e) What structure is most medial? a) Most superior: superior angle and acromion.b) Most posterior: spine.c) Most anterior: coracoid process.d) Most inferior: inferior angle.e) Most medial: medial border.
For the scapula, the technical change in mAs from AP to lateral "Y" is... 3x
Why do you ask a patient to abduct arm during an AP projection of scapula? To pull scapula away laterally.
How do you know that you have a good lateral of the scapula ("Y")? The lateral and medial borders are superimposed over each other and there isn't any superimposition of ribs.
Name the 4 types of body habituses. Sthenic, Hypersthenic, Hypostenic and Asthenic.
The thoracic cavity extends from: the superior thoracic aperture (where structures enter the thorax) to the inferior thoracic aperture.
The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the _________ cavity. abdominal
The thoracic cavity contains mainly the lungs, heart and organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems.True or False True
Which lung as three lobes?Which as two lobes? The right has 3 lobes (superior, middle and inferior).The left as two lobes (superior and inferior).
The mediastinum is the area of the ABDOMEN bounded by the sternum anteriorly, the spine posteriorly and the lungs laterally.TRUE OR FALSE? FALSE! The mediastinum is the area of the THORAX...
What is the SID for a PA CHEST? 72"
Where should the CR be positioned for a PA CHEST? Perpendicular to center of IR at level of T-7.
Where should the CR be positioned for the Lordotic CHEST? Perpendicular to center of IR at level of midsterum.
What structures are primarily identifiable during the AP Axial Lordotic CHEST projection? Tops of lung apices free of superimposition with clavicles.
Name the 4 divisions of the abdomen. Right Upper QuadrantLeft Upper QuadrantRight Lower QuadrantLeft Lower Quadrant
Name the 9 regions (outlined by Addison's Planes). Right Hypochondrium, Epigastrium, Left Hypochondrium___________________________________________Right Lateral, Umbilical, Left Lateral_________________________________________Right Inguinal, Hypogastrium, Left Inguinal
Why is a LEFT lateral decubitus performed instead of a RIGHT lateral decubitus? Because in the LEFT lateral decubitus position, the stomach is out of the way.
Created by: raymondafradella