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Vocabulary Terms.

Genetics Vocabulary.

Heredity The passing of traits from parents to their offspring.
Hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
Purebred The offspring of many generations that have the same traits.
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Offspring The children of an organism.
Gene The set of information or traits that you get from your parents.
Allele The different forms of genes.
Dominant Allele An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
Recessive Allele An allele that is masked when a dominate allele is present.
Homozygous Alleles Having two identical alleles for a trait.
Heterozygous Alleles Having two different alleles for a trait.
Genotype An organism genetic makeup, or allele combination.
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Fertilization The joining of sperm and an egg.
Punnet Square A chart that shows all the possible combination of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
Codominance A condition in which neither of two alleles gene is dominant or recessive.
Proability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosome.
Chromosomes A thread like chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form double-rod structure.
Sex Chromosomes A pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female.
Sex-Linked Trait A trait genetically determined by an allele located on the sex chromosome.
Carrier A person who has the recessive allele for a trait, but doesn't have the trait.
Pedigree a chart or "Family Tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
Karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in a cell.
Genetic Disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
Diploid Genetics Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled.
Haploid A cell that only has half of a cells chromosomes.
Meiosis The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with the desired traits to serve as the parents next generation.
inbreeding A selective breeding method in which to individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed.
clone An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from to the organism from which it was produced.
genetic engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits.
gene therapy The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.
Insertion Mutation with one or more base pairs.
Deletion The loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome.
Genome Is all the DNA in one cell of an organism.
Multiple alleles Three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait.
Messenger RNA Copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message t the ribosome.
Transfer RNA Carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein.
Created by: Kcarper2