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Science vocab #3

Hereditary The passing of traits from parents to offspring
hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
purebread The offspring of many generations that have the same trait
trait A characteristic that an organism can pause on to its offspring through genes
offspring a organism that the parents give traits to
gene the set of information that controls a trait
alleles different forms of a gene
dominant allele an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
homozygous having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous having two different alleles for a trait
genotype an organism's genetic make up, or allele combinations
phenotype an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
meiosis a type of cell division ending with four cells
haploid A or an organism having half the number of chromosomes in a cell
diploid A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes
sex-linked gene A gene carried on the X or Y chromosome
sex chromosomes A pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine if a person is male or female
carrier A person that has a recessive allele for a trait,but does not have the trait
genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
pedigree A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents for the next generations
inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed
hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed
clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it is produced
genetic engineering the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism to another organism,in order to produce an organism with desired traits
gene therapy the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to stop the disorder
mutation a change in a gene or chromosome
insertion The act or process of inserting
deletion the action or process of deleting something
substitution the action of replacing someone or something with another person or thing
genetics scientific study of heredity
fertilization the joining of an egg and a sperm
punnet square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result in a genetic cross
messenger RNA RNA that copies the codded message from the DNA in the nucleus
transfer RNA RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain
multiple alleles three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
genome all the DNA in one cell of an organism
probability a number that describes how likely an event will occur
chromotid two threadlike strands which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division
Created by: wnipper