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Chapter 2 Med Terms

Medical Terminology-Cytology

TermDefinition
Cytology The study of formation, structure, and function of cells.
cell membrane The structure that surrounds and protects the cell.
cytoplasm The material within the cell membrane.
nucleus Is a structure within the cell that has two important functions: 1)It controls the activities of the cell; and 2) It helps the cell divided.
chromosomes The nucleus of each cell contains 46, arranged into 23 pairs, of which 22 are identical, plus a single pair that determines the sex of the child.
gametes The only cells that do not have 46 chromosomes. Each has 23 single chromosomes. This cell determines the sex of the baby.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Chromosomes organized as two long coiled molecules.
genes The functional units of heredity.
genetics The study of how genes are transferred from the parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease.
genetic disorder Also known as hereditary disorders, are diseases or conditions caused by a defective gene. May be manifested at any time in life.
congenital disorder An abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth and may be caused by a developmental disorder before birth, prenatal influences, premature birth, or injuries during birth.
histology The study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues.
pathology The study of the structural and functional changes caused by disease.
etiology The study of the causes of diseases.
epidemiologist Specializes in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group.
endemic Refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area. (common cold)
epidemic A sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a population group or area.
pandemic Refers to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide.
iatrogenic Is a problem, such as a side effect or an unfavorable response, arising from a prescribed medical treatment.
nosocomial An infection acquired in a hospital setting that was not present on admission but appears 72 hours or more after hospitalization.
Created by: wthreadgill