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APS Social Studies

Physical Geography of Europe

permafrost soil that is permanently frozen below the earth
siroccos high dry winds from North Africa
dikes large banks of earth and stone that hold back water
polders low lying areas from which sea water has been drained to create new farmland
glaciation the process whereby glaciers form and spread
fjords long narrow steep sided inlets carved out by glaciers
timberline the elevation above which trees cannot grow
foehns dry winds that blow down from mountains into valleys and plains
avalanche destructive masses of snow,ice, and rock sliding down mountainsides
mistral a strong north wind from the Alps
peninsula a body of land surrounded on three sides by water
Europe second smallest continent, half the size of the continental U.S.
Scandinavian peninsula Located in northern Europe. Contains Norway, Sweden, and Finland
Jutland A peninsula that contains Denmark
Iberian Peninsula southwest Europe contains Spain and Portugal
Pyrenees mountain range cutting off the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe, the range is between France and Spain
Apennine Peninsula where Italy is located
The Apennines a geologically young mountain range, the backbone of the peninsula
Mount Vesuvius active volcano in the Apennines
Balkan Peninsula southeastern Europe, bounded by Adriatic and Ionian seas on west and Aegean and Black seas on the east
Mount Etna Europe's highest active volcano,located in Sicily
Ben Nevis highest mountain in the British Isles at 4,406ft
Meseta Spain's central plateau
Massif Central France's central highlands
The Alps Mountain range that forms a crescent from southern France to the Balkan Peninsula.
Mont Blanc The highest peak in the Alps 15,771 feet
The Po River another major river in Europe also originating in the Alps.
North European Plain stretches from southeastern England and western France eastward to Poland, Ukraine, and Russia. the plain is very fertile and there are many rivers. The southern edge is very fertile because of loess
loess a fine rich wind-borne soil
the Great Hungarian Plain a fertile plain extends from Hungary to Croatia, Serbia, and Romania. Farmers cultivate grains, fruit, and vegetables and raise livestock in the lowlands along the Danube River
Thames River located in England allows ocean going ships to reach the port of London
The Rhine river is the most important river in Western Europe, it originated in the Alps
The Danube Eastern Euope's major waterway
The Main-Danube Canal completed in 1992 linking the Black sea to the North sea
peat a kind of vegeable matter found in swamps and usually composed of mosses. Is used as a fuel that is burned (instead of wood or coal)
Gulf Stream a warm current
North Atlantc Drift the northern extension of the Gulf Stream current
coniferous trees cone-bearing fir, pine, and spruce, found in cooler Alpine mountain areas
chaparral shrubs or small trees, such as cork oak tree and the olive tree
Created by: tbostwick