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Psychology

Test 2

TermDefinition
Sensation activation of receptors by stimuli in the envirnoment
Perception process of organizing and making sense of sensory information
Transduction conversion of stimuli received by receptors into a form that can be used by the nervous system
Adaptation loss of sensitivity to a stimuli by the receptors as a result of a continued presentation of that stimulus
Proprioception internal awareness of body's place in movement
Kinesthesia external awareness of body in space applications
Absolute Threshold minimum amount of energy required for conscious detection of a stimulus 50% of the time by participants
Differential Threshold smallest amount of stimulation the must be added or subtracted from and existing stimulus fir a person to be able to detect a change 50% of the time
Back-masking the process of a sound or message behind deliberately recorded backwards in a song
Wavelength physical length of a light wave measured in nanometers
Amplitude strength or intensity of a stimulus
Saturation trueness or purity of a color
Reflected Light energy reflected by objects
Radiant Light visible energy emitted by an object
Cornea protective covering that focuses light wave
Aqueous Humor fluid the nourishes the eye
Pupil hole in the eye
Iris adjusts pupil opening
Accomodation change shape to focus visual image
Retina light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye
Vitreous Humor nourishment and shape for eye
Cones less prevalent visual receptors that detect color
Rods more prevalent visual receptors that detect black and white
Optic Chiasm point at which the optic nerve fibers form to each eye join
Monochromat person who only sees shades of grey
Dichromat person who has trouble seeing one of the three primary colors
Trichromat person who has normal color vision
Audition sense of hearing
Hetz unit of measure of the frequency of a sound wave
Decibel the amount of energy producing the vibrations we perceive as sound
Timbre purity of a soundwave
Ear Drum a tight membrane that vibrates with waves
Cochlea snail-shaped, fluid filled tube
Presbycusis caused by breakdown of hair cells in the ear
Tinnitus perception of sound (i.e. ringing) that is not actually present
Sensory Interaction principle that one sense influence another
4 Basic Taste Sensations sweet, salty, bitter, sour
Perception organizing and making sense of our environment
Dichotic Listening Task a different message is presented to each of a participants ears
Divided Attention the ability to attend to more than one message or type of info at the same time
Cocktail Party Phenomenon when important auditory information can be attend to while filtering out other stimuli
Top-Down Processing perceptual process influenced by experience and expecations
Bottom-Up Processing perceptions based on sensory information available
Selective Attention intentional, focused attention
Inattentional Blindness psychological lack of attention
Change Blindness when a change goes unnoticed by observer
Pattern Perception the ability to discriminate among different figures and shapes
Feature Analysis Theory we perceive basic elements of an object and assemble them mentally to create and complete the object
Perceptual Contancy tendency to perceive the size and shape of an object as constant even though the the retinal image changes
Shape Contancy tendency to perceive shape of an object as constant despite changes in its retinal image
Size Contancy tendency to perceive size of an object as constant despite changes in retinal image
Gestalt Psychology we are born with the ability to organize the elements of out perceptual world in predictable ways
Figure-Ground Relation organization of perceptual elements into a figure and background
Proximity close together objects seen as a group
Similarity similar objects seen as a group
Closure see separate pars as a complete object
Memory system or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use
Nonsense Syllables Stimuli composed of constant-vowel-constant sequence
Serial Learning learned material must be repeated in order that it was presented
Free Recall learned material that can be repeated in any order
Paired Associate Learning items to be recalled are learned in pairs
Primacy Effect increased chances or remembering items near the beginning of a list
Recency Effect increased chances or remembering items near the end of a list
Serial Position Effect increased chances or remembering items near the beginning and end of a list than in the middle
Recognition Test picking previously learned items from a list that also contains unfamiliar items (multiple choice)
Relearning Test after time passes original material is relearned
Encoding info is transformed/coded into a form that can be processed and further stored
Storage info is placed in the memory system
Retrieval stored memories are brought to consciousness
Sensory Memory very brief (.5-1 sec) but extensive memory of sensory events
Iconic Memory visual sensory memory
Echoic Memory auditory sensory memory
Haptic Memory tactile/touch sensory memory
Short-Term Memory info is held in consciousness of 10-20 seconds
Interference Theory some short-term memories are pushed out to make room for more
Chunking meaningful unit of info
Working Memory attention and conscious effort given to material
Long-Term Memory very large capacity and capability to store information relatively permanently
Maintenance Rehearsal used when we want to save info for a set amount of time
Eleborative Rehearsal meaning is added to info to be remembered
Pollyanna Principal pleasant items or events usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items
Proactive Interference previously learned info hinders the recall of info learned more recently
Retroactive Interference info learned more recently hinders recall of info learned previously
Levels-of-Processing Model deeper processing of info increases the likelihood that the info will be recalled
Explicit Memory consciously aware of
Implicit Memory not consciously aware of
Semantic Memory general knowledge
Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon almost, but not quite, able to remember something
Episodic Memory personal experiences
Flashbulb Memory very detailed memory of an arousing, surprising, emotional situation
Von Restoff Effect people recall emotionally charged stimuli better than neutral
Priming unconscious memory processing
Procedural Memory memory for making responses and performing skilled actions
Semantic Network network of related concepts that are linked together
Schemas grouping or cluster of knowledge that are linked together.
Encoding Specificity effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded and when it was retrieved
State-Dependent Learning when we learn something while in a specific psychological state, our recall of that info will be better when we are in that same psychological state
Misinformation Effect exposure to misleading information presented between the encoding of and event and its subsequent recall causes impairment in memore
Forgot-it-all-Along Effect forgot they had the memory
Created by: kmeseke