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HRM Exam 1

Organization People with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the organization’s goals.
Manager The person responsible for accomplishing the organization’s goals, and who does so by managing (planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling) the efforts of the organization’s people.
Management Process The five basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and, controlling.
Human Resource Management The process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety and fairness concerns.
Line Authority The authority exerted by an HR Manager by directing the activities of the people in his or her own department and in service areas (like the plant cafeteria).
Staff Authority Staff authority gives the manager the right (authority) to advise other managers or employees.
Line Manager A manager who is authorized to direct the work of subordinates and is responsible for accomplishing the organization’s tasks.
Staff Manager A manager who assists and advises line managers.
Functional Authority The authority exerted by an HR Manager as coordinator of personnel activities.
Globalization The tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad.
Human Capital The knowledge, education, training, skills, and expertise of a firm’s workers.
Title 7 of the 1964 Civil Rights Act The section of the act that says an employer cannot discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin with respect to employment.
Authority The right to make decisions, direct others’ work and give orders.
Talent Management The goal-oriented and integrated process of planning, recruiting, developing, managing and compensating employees.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) The commission, created by Title 7, is empowered to investigate job discrimination complaints and sue on behalf of complaints.
Adverse impact The overall impact of employers practices that result in significantly higher percentages of members of minorities and other protected groups being rejected for employments, placement, or promotion.
Federal Violence Against Women Act of 1994 The act that provides that a person who commits a crime of violence motivated by gender shall be liable to the party injured.
Affirmative Action Steps that are taken for the purpose of eliminating the present effects of past discrimination.
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) Office is responsible for implementing the executive orders and ensuring compliance of federal contractors.
Equal Pay Act of 1963 The act requiring equal pay for equal work, regardless of sex.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) The act prohibiting arbitrary age discrimination and specifically protecting individuals over the age of 40.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 The act requiring certain federal contractors to take affirmative action for disabled persons.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act An amendment to Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act that prohibits sex discrimination based on “pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.”
Uniform Guidelines Guidelines issued by federal agencies charged with ensuring compliance with equal employment federal legislation explaining recommended employer procedures in detail.
Protected Class Persons such as minorities and women protected by equal opportunity laws, including Title 7.
Civil Rights Act of 1991 (CRA 1991) The act that places the burden of proof back on employers and permits compensatory and punitive damages.
“mixed motive” case A discrimination allegation case in which the employer argues that the employment action taken was motivated not by discrimination, but by some nondiscriminatory reason such as ineffective performance.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The act requiring employers to make reasonable accommodations for disabled employees; it prohibits discrimination against disabled persons.
Qualified individual Under ADA, those who can carry out the essential functions of the job.
Sexual Harassment On the basis of sex that has the purpose or effect of substantially interfering with a person’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
Trend analysis Study of a firm’s past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs.
Application Form The form that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills.
Disparate Rejection Rates A test for adverse impact in which it can be demonstrated that there is a discrepancy between rates of rejection of members of a protected group and of others.
4/5ths Rule Federal agency rule that a minority selection rate less than 80% (4/5) of that for the group with the highest rate is evidence of adverse impact.
Restricted Policy Another test for adverse impact, involving demonstration that an employer’s hiring practices exclude a protected group, whether intentionally or not.
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) Requirement that an employee be of a certain religion, sex, or national origin where that is reasonably necessary to the organization’s normal operation. Specified by the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Alternative Dispute Resolution program (ADR) Grievance procedure that provides for binding arbitration as the last step.
Diversity The variety or multiplicity of demographic features that characterize a company’s workforce, particularly in terms of race, sec, culture, national origin, handicap, age, and religion.
Discrimination Taking specific actions toward or against the person based on the person’s group.
Gender-role stereotypes The tendency to associate women with certain (frequently nonmanagerial) jobs.
Managing diversity Maximizing diversity’s potential benefits while minimizing its potential barriers.
Good faith effort strategy An affirmative action strategy that emphasizes identifying and eliminating the obstacles to hiring and promoting women and minorities, and increasing the minority or female applicant flow.
Reverse discrimination Claim that due to affirmative action quota systems, white males are discriminated against.
Strategic Plan The company’s plan for how it will match internal strengths and weaknesses with external opportunities and threats in order to maintain a competitive advantage.
Strategy A course of action the company can pursue to achieve its strategic aims.
Strategic Management The process of identifying and executing the organization’s strategic plan, by matching the company’s capabilities with the demands of its environment.
Vision Statement A general statement of the firm’s intended direction that shows, in broad terms, “what we want to become.”
Mission Statement Summarizes the answer to the question, “What business are we in?”
Corporate-level Strategy Type of strategy that identifies the portfolio of businesses that, in total, comprise the company and the ways in which these businesses relate to each other.
Competitive Strategy A strategy that identifies how to build and strengthen the business’s long-term competitive position in the marketplace.
Competitive Advantage Any factors that allow an organization to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors to increase market share.
Functional Strategy Strategy that identifies the broad activities that each department will pursue in order to help the business accomplish its competitive goals.
Strategic Human Resource Management Formulating and executing human resource policies and practices that produce the employee competencies and behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic aims.
Strategy Map A strategic planning tool that shows the “big picture” of how each department’s performance contributes to achieving the company’s overall strategic goals.
HR Scorecard A process for assigning financial and nonfinancial goals or metrics to the human resource management-related chain of activities required for achieving the company’s strategic aims and for monitoring results.
Digital Dashboard Presents the manager with desktop graphs and charts, and so a computerized picture of where the company stand on all those metrics from the HR Scorecard process.
Strategy-based Metrics Metrics that specifically focus on measuring the activities that contribute to achieving a company’s strategic aims.
HR Audit An analysis by which an organization measures where it currently stands and determines what it has to accomplish to improve its HR function.
High-performance Work System A set of human resource management policies and practices that promote organizational effectiveness.
Human Resource Metric The quantitative gauge of human resource management activity such as employee turnover, hours of training per employee, or qualified applicants per position.
Talent Management The goal-oriented and integrated process of planning, recruiting, developing, managing, and compensating employees.
Applicant Tracking Systems Online systems that help employers attract, gather, screen, compile, and manage applicants.
College Recruiting Sending an employer’s representatives to college campuses to prescreen applicants and create an applicant pool from the graduating class.
Job Analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Job Description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities—one product of a job analysis.
Job Specification A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on—another product of a job analysis.
Organization Chart A chart that shows the organization-wide distribution of work, with title of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom.
Process Chart A workflow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
Workflow Analysis A detailed study of the flow of work from job to job in a work process.
Business Process Reengineering Redesigning business processes, usually by combining steps, so that small multifunction process teams using information technology do the jobs formerly done by a sequence of departments.
Job Enlargement Assigning workers additional same-level activities.
Job Rotation Systematically moving workers from one job to another.
Job Enrichment Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
Diary/Log Daily listings made by workers of every activity in which they engage along with the time each activity takes.
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs that are subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations.
Competency-based Job Analysis Describing the job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well.
Workforce Planning The process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill, and how to fill them.
Ratio analysis A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between, for example, sales volume and number of employees needed.
Scatter Plot A graphical method used to help identify the relationship between two variables.
Qualifications (or skills) Inventories Manual or computerized record listing employees’ education, career and development interests, languages, special skills, and so on, to be used in selecting inside candidates for promotion.
Personnel Replacement Charts Company records showing present performance and promote-ability of inside candidates for the most important positions.
Position Replacement Card A card prepared for each position in a company to show possible replacement candidates and their qualifications.
Recruiting Yield Pyramid The historical arithmetic relationships between recruitment leads and invitees, invitees and interviews, interviews and offers made, and offers made and offers accepted.
Employee Recruiting Finding and/or attracting applicants for the employer’s open positions.
On-Demand Recruiting Services Services that provide short term specialized recruiting to support specific projects without the expense of retaining traditional search firms.
Job Posting Publicizing an open job to employees (often by literally posting it on bulletin boards) and listing its attributes, like qualifications, supervisor, working schedule, and pay rate.
Succession Planning The ongoing process of systematically identifying, assessing and developing organizational leadership to enhance performance.
Alternative Staffing The use of nontraditional recruitment sources.
Globalization The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
Human Capital The stock of knowledge, habits, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.
Contingent Personnel A provisional group of workers who work for an organization on a non-permanent basis, also known as freelancers, independent professionals, temporary contract workers, independent contractors or consultants.
Prima facie case (i) The plaintiff is a member of a protected class. (ii) The plaintiff applied and was qualified for the job. (iii) The application was rejected. (iv) The position remained open after the rejection.
Griggs vs. Duke The Supreme Court ruled that the company's employment requirements did not pertain to applicants' ability to perform the job, and so was discriminating against Black employees.
Reasonable accommodation n adjustment made in a system to accommodate or make fair the same system for an individual based on a proven need.
GINA Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit the use of genetic information in health insurance and employment
Sarbanes-Oxley Act United States federal law that set new or enhanced standards for all U.S. public company boards, management and public accounting firms
Restricted policy Another test for adverse impact, involving demonstration that an employer’s hiring practices exclude a protected group, whether intentionally or not.
Hostile work environment Exists when an employee experiences workplace harassment and fears going to work because of the offensive, intimidating, or oppressive atmosphere generated by the harasser.
Tokenism The practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to do a particular thing, especially by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of sexual or racial equality within a workforce.
Stereotypes A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.
Ethnocentric Evaluating other peoples and cultures according to the standards of one's own culture.
McDonnell-Douglas test (1973), was an early substantive ruling by the United States Supreme Court regarding the burdens and nature of proof in proving a Title VII case and the order in which plaintiffs and defendants present proof.
Quid pro Quo Means an exchange of goods or services, where one transfer is contingent upon the other
Created by: jklevin3085
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