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Intro to Pharmacolog

Pharmacology the study of drugs, their properties, and how they interact with the body
active ingredient responsible for a drug's therapeutic effect
inert ingredient part of a drug that has little or no therapeutic value
biopharmaceuticals drugs produced by recombinant DNA
homeostasis the balance of the body with respect to fluid levels, pH, osmotic pressure, and concentrations of various substances
specificity how closely a drug matches a receptor
affinity how tightly a drug binds to a receptor
agonist binds to a receptor and causes some action to occur
antagonist drug binds to a receptor and prevents other chemicals from affecting the cell
pharmacokinetics effect of the body on the drug over time
absorption how a drug enters body and bloodstream
distribution how a drug moves through the body
metabolism how a drug is broken down by the body
excretion how a drug is removed from the body
bioavailability the degree which a drug is available to a desired site to produce a desired effect
first-pass effect drug passes directly from the GI tract to the liver before entering bloodstream
half-life the amount of time necessary to decrease blood concentration of a drug by 50%
therapeutic window the range of concentrations where a drug is most effective with least toxicity
duration of action how long a drug stays in the therapeutic window
loading dose a large starting dose used to quickly bring drug levels up
ceiling effect the point at which additional amount of drug stops have a positive effect
pharmacodynamic agent alters body functions to cause a desired response
diagnostic agent any drug used more for diagnosis than treatment
therapeutic agent maintains health, relieves symptoms, combats illness, or reverses disease process
prophylactic agent used to prevent an illness from occuring
destructive agent destroys abnormal or normal cells
therapeutic effect the desired effect of a drug
indication the disease or condition that may be treated with this drug, according to the FDA
contraindication disease or condition that this drug may not be used for
side effect any unintended response to a drug (not always harmful)
allergic reaction immune response to an antigen, can range from mild to life-threatening
antigen any molecule that causes an immune response
histamine released during immune response, causing rash, swelling, itching, etc.
anaphylactic shock life-threatening allergic reaction resulting in airway closing and very low blood pressure
drug dependence body needs drug to function normally
drug abuse use of drug for purposes other than prescribed or in amounts other than as prescribed
addiction need to use drug for psychological and physical reasons, regardless of risk
physical dependence lack of drug causes physical withdrawal (sweating, racing heart, etc.)
psychological dependence lack of drug causes psychological symptoms, such as irritability and anxiety
tolerance decrease in the body's response to a drug over time
additive interaction combined effect of 2 drugs equal to sum of drugs take alone (1+1=2)
antagonistic interaction one drug blocks the action of the other (1-1=0)
synergistic interaction combined effects of 2 drugs have MORE effect than what would be expected when combined (1+1=3)
potentiation one drug increases the potency of another drug, but the first drug does little or nothing by itself
clinical trials used to study effectiveness and safety of drug
efficacy effectiveness
placebo product that is given in place of a drug with no active ingredients
black-box warning drug has high risk that prescriber must be aware of
NDC Code indicating manufacturer, medication, and packaging of drug
Created by: conleycomp



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