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Chapter 4 Vocab

Science

TermDefinition
Nucleus Center of an atom.
Proton Positive electric charge. & It's inside the nucleus.
Neutron Have no electric charge. & It's inside the nucleus.
Electron Negatively charged subatomic particles that move around outside the nucleus.
Orbital area in an atom where electrons are likely to be found.
Valence electron An electron in the outermost energy level of an atom.
Periodic law States that when elements are arranged this way, similarities in their properties will occur in a regular pattern
Period Horizontal rows in the Periodic Table
Group Atoms of elements in the same group or column that have the same number of valence electrons and have similar properties.
Ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge.
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element.
Mass number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Isotope an atom that has the same number of protons as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons.
Atomic mass unit (AMU) a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly one twelfth of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12.
Average atomic mass the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well.
Nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly and that does not form positive ions in an electrolytic solution.
Semiconductor an element or compound that conducts electric current better than an insulator but not as well as a conductor.
Alkali- metal one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table
Alkaline- earth metal one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table.
Transition metal one of the metals that can use the inner shell before using the outer shell to bond
Halogen one of the elements of group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine) halogens combine with most metals to form salt.
Noble gas an unreactive element of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, or radon) that has eight electrons in iits outer level (except for helium, which has two electrons)
Mole the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in 12 g of carbon-12
Avogadro's constant equals 6.02 times 10 to the 23 power; the number of particles in 1 mol.
Molar mass the mass in grams of 2 mol of a substance.
Conversion factor a ratio that is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert from one unit to the other.
Created by: dasham