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AP Psychology Unit 1

AP Psychology Unit 1 Vocabulary

Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processs
Structualism Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
Functionalism Early perspective in psychology associated with William James,in which the focus of the study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
Gesalt Psychology Early perspective in psychology focusing in perception and sensations, particulary the perception of patterns and whole figures
Psychoanalysis Freud's term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it
Behaviorism The science of behavior focuses on observable behavior only
Psychodynamic Perspective Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a persons's behavior than sexual motivations
Cognitive Perspective Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
Sociocultural Perception Perspective in which abnormal behavior(like normal behavior) is seen as the product of the learning and shaping of behavior within the context of the family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within the family an social group exist
Biopsychological Perspective Perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occuring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
Psychiatrist A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis of psychological diorders
Double-blind study Study in which neither the experimenter nor the the subjects are in the experimental or control group
Evolutionary Perspective Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
Clinical Psychology Area of psychology in which the psychologists and treat people with psychological disorders that may range from mild to severe
Hypothesis Tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations
Correlation A measure of the relationship between two variables
Correlation Coefficient (r) represents two things: - Direction of the relationship - Strength of the relationship
Experiment A deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result; allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationship
Operational Definition Definition of a variable of internet that allow it to be directly measured
Independent Direction Variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
Depndent Variable Variable an experiment thar represents the measureable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
Control Group Suspects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may recieve a placebo treatment
Random Assignments Process of assigning subjects to the experomental or control group randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group
Single-Blind Study Study in which the subjects do not know if they are in experimentqal or the control group
Observer Effect The tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
Experimenter Effect Tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unitnentially influence the results of the study
Observe Bias Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
Placebo Effect The phenomenon in which the expectations of the particpants in a study
Evolutionary Perspective Percpective thst focuses on the biological
Biopsychological Perspective Perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the result
Cognitive Perspective Modern theory in which classical
Early Founders of Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Self-Actualization Achieving one's full potential
Seven Modern Perspectives Psychodynamic,Cognitive,Behavioral, Huamnistic,Biopsychological,Evolutionary,Sociocultural
Sensory or Perceptual Most expierences Wilhem Wundt's subjects were exposed to
Wilhem Wundt The Father of Modern Scientific Psychology
Wilhem Wundt Opened his first lab to study human behavior in 1879
Wilhem Wundt He and his followers relied heavily on introspection as a technique to analyze experiments
Wilhem Wundt His subjects were exposed to an experience and asked to relate their thoughts, feelings, and images evoked by the event
Methods of Research Naturalistic Observation, Case Study, Labratory Observation, Survey, Interviews, Psychological Testing, Longitudinal Study, Cross-Sectional
Naturalistic Observation Research method involving the study of subjects without their knowing that they are being watched
Case Study Research that collects lengthy, detailed information on a person or family/ group's background
Labratory Observation Observing natural behaviors in a labratory setting
Survey Method of research using questions on feelings, opinions, or behavior patterns posed to a representative, random sample
Interviews Studying people face to face and asking questions
Psychological Testing Observation and measurement of thesubject using objective tools
Longitudinal Study Studyng the same group of people over an extended period of time
Cross-Sectional Research that looks at different age groups at the same period of time in order to understand changes that occur during the life span
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
Operational Definition Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be discussed
Extraneous Variable Variables outside of the Independent Variable that can influence results
Created by: Chabelita