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# Unit 2 RM

### Research Methods

TermDefinition
Anecdotal evidence consists of personal stories about specific incidents & experiences
Case study an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
Confounding Variables occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
Control group consists of similar subjects who does not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
Correlation exists when two variables are related to each other
Correlation Coefficient a numerical index of degree of relationship between two variables
Data collection techniques procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
Dependent variable variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
Descriptive statistics used to organize and summarize data
Double-blind procedure a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
Experiment a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
Experimental group consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
Experimenter bias a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectation or performs about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
Extraneous variables any variables other than the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
Hypothesis a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Independent variable in a experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
Inferential statistics statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions
Journal a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
Mean the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
Median the score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
Mode the most frequent score in a distirbution
Naturalistic observation the descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
Operational definition a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable
Participants the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
Placebo effects the fact that subjects' expectations can lead to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
Population the larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about
Random assignment the constitution of a groups in a study such that al subjects here an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition
Replication the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
Research methods differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies
Response sets a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions
Sample the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Sampling bias a problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn
Social desirability bias a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
Standard deviation an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
Statistical significance to exist when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low
Statistics use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data
Survey researchers are questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects' of participants background and behavior
Theory system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Variability how much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the mean
Variables are at any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study +
Hindsight bias the tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
Applied research type of research which is conducted to solve practical problems
Basic research conducted with the intent of increasing the scientific knowledge base and to find theoretical truth and understanding
Validity the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
Reliability the measurement constituency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques)
Sampling the part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern
Random collection process of gathering a representative sample for a particular study
Stratified sampling a sampling method used when the population is composed a several subgroups that may differ in the behavior or attribute you are studying
Assignment the position or post to which a person is assigned
Participant bias (Response bias) a participant of a study provides a response that does not reflect their true feelings, thoughts, or behavior
Hawthorne effect the change of behavior resulting from attention participants believe they are getting from researchers, and not the variables manipulated by the researchers
Scatter plot a visual representation of the relationships or associations between two numerical variables, which are represented as points or dots , each plotted at a horizontal and vertical axis
Survey method a method for collecting information or data as reported by individuals
Normal curve a frequency curve where most occurrences take place in the middle of the distribution and taper off in either side
APA Ethical Guidelines for Human Research
Created by: KGraham12