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Research Enterprise

Chapter 2 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Anecdotal evidence Consists of personal stories about incidents or experimenters
Case study In-depth investigation of a subject.
Confounding of variables Happens when two variables are connected together so closely that it is hard to sort out their specific effects.
Control group Similar subjects who don't receive special treatment which is the opposite to the experimental group.
Correlation coefficient A numerical index between two variables by the degree of relationship,
Data collection techniques They are procedures for making any observations and measurements.
Dependent variable A variable affected by the manipulation of the independent variable.
Descriptive statics This is used to organize and summarize data.
Double-blind procedure A research strategy in which neither experimenters nor subjects know which subjects are control or experimental groups.
Experiment A type of research method in which the investigator who manipulates a variable under a controlled condition and they then observe any changes in the second variable.
Experimental group The subjects who receive special treatment considering the independent variable.
Experimenter bias Occurs when a researchers' expectations about an outcomes study influences the results.
Extraneous variables Any variables other than the independent variable that may influence the dependent variable in a study.
Hypothesis A statement depicting the relation between more than one variable.
Independent variable A event that a person (experimenter) varies to observe its potential impact on another variable
Inferential statistics Used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
Journal A regularly interval that publishes technical material, narrowly defined as an are of an official investigation.
Mean The arithmetic average of a spread out of scores.
Median The score that is exactly in the middle of a spread out of scores.
Mode The most frequent score in a distribution.
Naturalistic observation A researcher engages in an observation of behavior without dealing with the subjects.
Operational definition Describes actions that can be used to observe (control) a variable in a study.
Participants They are also known as subjects, are the animals or persons whose behavior is observed in a study.
Placebo effects Occurs when subjects expectations lead them to experience changes and they may receive empty, fake, ineffectual treatment.
Population A larger collection of people or animal (sample drawn) that researches make common.
Random assignment (of subjects) This happens when all subjects have an equal amount of chance of being chosen to any group of study.
Replication The repetition of a study to see whether earlier results can be duplicated.
Research methods Measurements, manipulations, and control of variables are different approaches to observations.
Response set A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the question.
Sample The collection of subjects selected for an observation for an empirical study.
Sampling bias A sample is not representative of the population, which is drawn.
Social desirability bias A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions.
Standard deviation An index of the amount of variability in a set of data.
Statistical significance Exists when the probability that observed findings are very low at chance.
Statistics Uses math to summarize, organize, and explain numerical data.
Subjects They are also known as participants, are the animals or persons whose behavior is observed in a study.
Survey Researchers use questionnaires or maybe interviews to gather info about specifics of participants' behavior and background.
Theory It is described as a system of ideas that are related to one another that are used to make clear of a set of observations.
Variability How much data of scores differ from a each other and the mean.
Variables Any conditions, events, characteristics or behaviors measurable that can be controlled in a study.
Neal Miller In his statements he describes the value of studies and behavioral research on animals. He also liberated stimulus-response concepts: motivation, social learning and conflict behavior.
Robert Rosenthal He suggested that experimental bias may lead the behavior of the subjects to be unintentionally influenced. He and another research did an experiment with psychologist students and influenced them to get different conclusions.
Stanley Schachter He designed a clever experiment to test his hypothesis of the need of affiliation (to be around others to sort situations out). In his experiment he used independent and dependent variables and experimental and control groups.
Correlation Happens when two variables are in common with one another.
Hindsight Bias The tendency that people can view events that depict situations that are more predictable than they really are. People believe they already know the outcome to an event.
Applied Research Scientific research and study that tries to solve practical (everyday) problems. Ex. Cure and illness
Basic Research The study and research on science (pure), this helps to increase our knowledge base.
Validity A specific test that measures what the test claims to measure.
Reliability Produces similar results under consistent conditions.
Random Selection How the sample is drawn from a large population.
Stratified Sampling Uses layers of a population to contain representatives from each layer.
Hawthorne effect A type of tendency that some people work harder and perform better when they participant in an experiment.
Correlation A measurement of the relationship between 2 variables.
Scatter plot Data is clustered near a certain straight line.
Survey method The use of collecting data by gathering information about an individual.
Normal curve Can be used on a test, a bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Scores mostly fall in the average range and fewer scores lie in the extremes.
APA Ethical Guidelines for Human Research 1. Discuss intellectual property 2. Multiple Roles (Be conscious) 3. Follow informed rules 4. Respect privacy 5. Ethic resources
Participant bias That subjects act in a way they think they experimenter wants them to act.
Created by: kennedykeith