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Pharm Quiz 1

Pharmacology Chapters 1-3

pharmacology is the study of... drugs or medicine
what is drugs? therapeutic agent, any substance other than food used in the prevention diagnosis, alleviation, treatment or cure of disease, any chemical substance that affects biologic system
what are dietary supplements? herbs, vitamins, minerals and amino acids
who is able to write prescriptions? physicians, veterinarians, dentist, optometrists, physician's assistans, nurse practitioners, pharmacists
a drug is first identified by its... chemical name, if a structure is unknown a code name is given
if a compound is useful, pharmaceutical company discovering drug gives it a... trade name
trade name can also be known as... proprietary name or brand name
generic is always... lower case letter
brand name or trade name is always... upper case
what is chemically equivalent? when two formulations of a drug meet the chemical and physical standards established by the regulatory agencies
what is biologically equivalent drugs? when two drug formulations produce similar concentrations in the blood and tissues
what are therapeutically equivalent drugs? if two drug formulations have an equal therapeutic effect in a clinical trial
what is the Harrison Narcotic Act? regulations concerning the use of opium, opiates and cocaine before this law over the counter drugs could contain opium and cocaine
what does FDA do? determines which drugs can be sold over the counter and what may be sold by prescription regulates labeling and advertising of prescription drugs
what does the federal trade commission do? regulates trade practices of drug companies does not allow false advertising of foods, over the counter drugs and cosmetics
what does the drug enforcement administration do? regulates the manufacturing and distribution of narcotics, stimulants and sedatives
what does the omnibus budget reconciliation act do? regulation requires pharmacists to provide patient counseling and a drug utilization review for medicaid patients any patient that has a prescription should receive counseling from the pharmacists
what measurement system is used in pharmacology? metric system
what is superscription? patient's name, address, and age: date and the symbol Rx
what is inscription? name of the drug, dose form, and the amount
what is subscription? directions to the pharmacists
what is transcription? signature: directions to the patient
what are the parts of the classic categorization of prescription? superscription inscription subscription transcription
what is the parts of the practical formation of prescription writing? heading body closing
what is under the heading in the practical format? name, address, telephone number of prescriber name, address, age and telephone number of patient date of prescription: it is not legal with out this
what is under the body in the practical format? symbol RX name and dosage size or concentration of the drug amount to be dispensed directions to the patient
what is under the closing in the practical format? prescribers signature DEA number if required refill instructions
before a dentist can legally write a prescription for a patient what 2 criteria must be met? patient of record dental condition
schedule I drugs are highest abuse potential with no accepted medical use
schedule II drugs are high abuse potential and written prescription with provider's signature only with NO REFILLS
schedule III drugs are moderate abuse potential, prescriptions may be telephoned no more than five prescriptions in 6 months
schedule Iv drugs are less abuse potential, prescriptions may be telephoned no more than give prescriptions in 6 months
schedule V drugs are least above potential can be bought OTC in some states
what does "a" mean? before
what does "ac" mean? before meals
what does "bid" mean? twice a day
what does "c" mean? with
what does "cap" mean? capsule
what does "d" mean? day
what does "dips" mean? dispense
what does "gm" mean? gram
what does "gr" mean? grain
what does "gtt" mean? drop
what does "h" mean? hour
what does "hs" mean? at bedtime
what does "p" mean? after
what does "pc" mean? after meals
what does "PO" mean? by mouth
what does "prn" mean? as required, if needed
what does "q" mean? every
what does "qid" mean? 4 times a day
what does "s" mean? without
what does "sig" mean write (label)
what does "ss" mean? one half
what does "stat" mean? immediately (now)
what does "tab" mean? tablet
what does "tid" mean? 3 times a day
what does "ud" mean? as directed
what is the log dose effect curve? when a drug exerts an effect on biologic systems, the effect can be related quantitatively to the dose of the drug given response of the drug depending on how much is given
what is potency? a function of the amount of drug required to produce an effect
what is ED50 median effective dose dose of the drug required to produce a specific effect in 50% of the subjects or the dose that produces half of the maximum effect
the higher the potency of the drug... the lower the ED 50 will be
what is efficacy? efficacy is the maximum intensity of effect or response that can be produced by a drug maximum effect of a drug regardless of the dose
efficacy and potency are... unrelated
what does GABA stand for gamma-Aminobutyric acid
what is agonist? a drug that has an affinity for a receptor, combines with that receptor and produces an effect
what is an antagonist? counteracts the action of the agonist
what is a competitive antagonist? a drug that has affinity for a receptor, combines with the receptor and produces no effect
what is a noncompetitive antagonist? drug which binds to a receptor site that is different from the binding site for the agonist
what is a physiologic antagonist? a drug which has an affinity for a different receptor site than the agonist
what is a ionic bond? an electrostatic bond between 2 ions of opposite charges
what is a covalent bond? occurs when the outside electrons are shared among the elements
what is the most common and popular way to administer drugs? oral route
what is the advantage of oral route administration large absorbing area in the small intestine, produces slower onset of action than parenterally administered agents
what is the disadvantage of oral route stomach and intestinal irritation may result in nausea and vomiting, certain drugs are inactivated by the GI tract, blood levels less predictable than those obtained parenterally
what is used if the patient is vomiting or unconscious? rectal route
what is the disadvantages of rectal route? poor patient acceptance and poor and irregular absorption
what is the route of most rapid drug response and immediate onset of action? intravenous route
what are the disadvantages of intravenous route? local irritation, drug irretrievability, and side effects related to high plasma concentration of the drugs
what is intrathecal route? subarachnoid space within the spine
what is intraperitoneal route? placing fluid in to the peritoneal cavity
what is the difference between elixirs and syrups? elixers have alcohol syrups have sugar
what is pharmacokinetics? the study of how a drug enters the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body and leaves the body
what are the 4 steps of pharmacokinetics? absorption distribution metabolism excretion
the more ionized the compound... the less drug is absorbed
weak acids are better absorbed when the pH is... less than the pKa
weak bases are better absorbed when the pH is... greater than the pKa
what is oral absorption parts disruption disintegration dispersion dissolution
what is disruption? initial disruption of a tablet coating or capsule
what is disintegration? tablet or capsule breaks apart
what is dispersion? concentrated drug particles spread through the stomach/intestines
what is dissolution drug dissolved in solution in GI fluid
what is a half life? amount of time that passes for the concentration of a drug to fall to one half of its blood level at any time
what is metabolism also know as? biotransformation
what is the definition of metabolism? the body's way of changing a drug so that it can be more easily excreted by the kidney
what is the first pass effect? drug passes through the liver first
what is the most important in excretion? renal excretion (kidney)
what are the exertion routes? lungs, milk, sweat, saliva
what drugs are detected in the saliva if taken at high levels? aspirin, phenytoin, ampicillin, dizepam, pen VK, phenobarbital
what are the factors that change drug effects? patient compliance psychologic factors tolerance pathologic state time of administration, route of administration sex, genetic variations drug interactions age and weight, environment
what are the ways of calculation children's dosage? clark's rule, fried's rule, young's role, cowling's rule and surface area rule
what is pKa measure of the ability of a drug to combine with hydrogen ions; it will tell you how easily a compound will release or pick up hydrogen ions when placed in a solution
what are adverse drug reaction? is a response to a drug that is not desired, is potentially harmful and occurs at usual therapeutic doses
what is toxic reaction? the amount of the desired effect is excessive
what is a side effect? dose related reaction, predictable
what is an idiosyncratic reaction? genetically related abnormal drug response
what is a teratogenic effect? producing a malformed fetus
what is a hapten? can act as an antigen after combining with proteins in the body; antigen formed stimulates antibody production or antibody/antigen reaction
what is type I allergic reactions? immediate hypersenstivitity
what is type II allergic reactions? cytotoxic/cytolytic
what is type III allergic reactions? arthus reactions
what is type IV allergic reactions delayed hypersensitivity
what is type I allergic reactions mediated by? IgE antibodies acute life threatening
what is the best example of a type III allergic reaction? serum sickness
what is LD50? lethal dose one measure of the toxicity of a drug, the dose that kills half of subjects
what is the therapeutic index? LD50/ED50 if the TI is small, toxicity is more likely if the TI is large, drug will be safer
Created by: Chobchi



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