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Unit 1

Applied Psychology The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems
Behavior Any observable response or activity by an organism
Behaviorism A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Clinical psychology The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Cognition The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Critical Thinking The use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desired outcome.
Culture The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
Empiricism THe premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.
Ethnocentrism The tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways
Evolutionary Psychology Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations.
Functionalism A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Humanism A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.
Introspection Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience
Natural selection Principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time
Positive Psychology Approach to psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
Psychiatry A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
Psychoanalytic Theory A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Psychology The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
SQ3R A study system designed to promote effective reading by means of five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review.
structuralism A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related
Testwiseness The ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize one's score
Theory A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
Unconscious According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
Gestalt Psychology From a German word that means 'whole' or 'form' or 'configuration.' The Gestalt psychologists believed that much of perception is shaped by innate(natural) factors built into the brain.
Wilhelm Wundt Marked the birth of psychology as a modern science. Accredited German professor who made strenuous efforts to make psychology its own category of science.
Edward Titchener Englishman who came to the United States in 1892 and contributed his idea of structuralism to psychology.
William James Scholar who contributed much to the concept of functionalism.
Sigmund Freud Physician who came up with the concept of psychoanalysis and developed the idea of the unconsciousness.
G. Stanley Hall Established the first research laboratory for psychology in America, launched the first psychology journal, and also established the American psychological Association(APA)
John B. Watson Founded the concept of behaviorism, stressed the necessity of being able to observe all aspects of experimentation.
B.F. Skinner A highly acclaimed psychologist that was strongly against the idea of free will and a believer of the concept of the environment having complete control of each individual's behavior.
Carl Rogers A prominent figure in the humanistic movement who focused on the self driven motives of human beings.
Martin Seligman Served as one of the presidents of the APA, inspired to create the concept of positive psychology movement.
Mary Whiton calkins Founded one of the first dozen psychology laboratories at Wellesley College, first woman to be president of the APA
Leta Stetter Hollingworth Performed pioneering work on adolescent development, mental retardation, and gifted children; carried out experiments to refute the allegation that women are less superior to men
Abraham Maslow Another important figure in the humanistic movement who harped on the self drive of human beings to thrive
Max Wertheimer Psychologist that was against dividing thoughts and behavior as two separate entities
Ivan Pavlov Psychologist that studied animals and how they react to pave the way for stimulus response psychology
Jean Piaget Psychologist who did many studies pertaining to children, created the theory of genetic epistemology
Charles Darwin Most known for his theory of evolution; made key observations and discoveries while in the Galapagos Islands relating to the theory.
Margaret Floy Washburn First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology, second female president of the APA
Created by: 10009127
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