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U1 Matter & Energy

Matter & Energy

TermDefinition
Solid State The state of matter with a definite shape and a definite volume. Particles are closest together in a solid.
Liquid State The state of matter with a definite volume, but no definite shape. Particles in a liquid slide past each other.
Gas State The state of matter with no definite shape or volume. Particles in a gas are well separated with no regular arrangement, and vibrate and move freely at high speeds.
Atom The smallest basic unit of matter.
Molecule A group of atoms that are bonded together so that they act as a single unit.
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Element A substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical changes. An element consists of only one type of atom. Simplest pure substance.
Compound A substance made up of two or more different types of atoms bonded together. A pure substance.
Chemical Properties Properties of matter that can only be observed by changing the chemical nature of the substance.
Physical Properties Properties of matter that can be observed without changing the chemical nature of the substance.
Plasma State The fourth state of matter; an ionized or positively charged gas
Conduction The transfer of energy through the direct contact of atoms.
Convection The transfer of energy through a fluid by density differences.
Radiation The transfer of energy over a distance.
Mixture A combination of two or more substances that do not combine chemically but remain the same individual substances. Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
Solute The substance dissolved in a solution.
Solubility The ability of a substance to dissolve in a liquid.
Solvent A substance that dissolves another to form a solution: (example: water is a solvent for sugar)
Melting Point temperature at which a substance changes phases from solid to liquid (physical property)
Freezing Point Temperature at which a substance changes states from liquid to solid (physical property)
Homogeneous A mixture that is mixed evenly throughout. You cannot see the different parts.
Solution A type of homogeneous mixture where one substance is dissolved in another (homogeneous mixture)
Alloy A solid solution of metals. (homogeneous mixture) Ex- Steel is a mixture of iron and carbon
Density The amount of matter packed into a certain amount of space. Water's is 1g/mL. D=m/V
Heterogeneous A mixture unevenly mixed. You can see the different parts.
Physical Change A change in the appearance or shape of matter. No new substances are formed.
Chemical Change A change at the atomic level of matter that rearranges bonds between atoms.Two or more substances combine to form a new substance.
Intensive Property Depends on material's characteristics; does not change with the amount of a material. ex: Density, color, smell, boiling point
Extensive Property A characteristic of a material that will change with quantity. Depends on amount. ex: Mass, volume, shape, size
Created by: lcrowe