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Ch 14- Urinary

Bontrager ch 14 self test questions for Urinary and venipuncture

The kidneys are _____ structures. Retroperitoneal
The ureters enter the _____ aspect of the bladder. Posterolateral
The ureters lie at a _______ (anterior or posterior) surface of each psoas major muscle. Anterior
The kidneys lie at a _____ angle in relation to the coronal plane. 30 degrees
An abnormal amount of more than ___ inches or ___ cm when the patient is erect indicates nephroptosis. 2 inches or 5 centimeters
The buildup of nitrogenous waste in the blood creates a condition called ____ Uremia
How much urine is normally produced by the kidneys in 24 hours? 1.5 liters
The renal veins connect directly to the ____ Inferior vena cava
The 8-18 conical masses within the renal medulla are called _________ Renal pyramids
The major calyces of the kidney unite to form the _________ Renal pelvis
The microscopic unit of the kidney is called the ______ Nephron
True/false: About 50% of the glomerular filtrate processed by the nephron is reabsorbed into the kidney's venous system. False- 99% is reabsorbed.
True/false: The loop of Henle and collecting tubules are located primarily in the medulla of the kidney. True
The three constricted points along the length of the ureters where a kidney stone is most likely to lodge are: Ureteropelvic juntion, near the brim of the pelvis, and ureterovesical junction.
The inner, posterior triangular aspect of the bladder that is attached to the floor of the pelvis is called the _____ Trigone
True/false: The retrograde ureterogram demonstrates the ureters, the renal pelvis and the calyces. False- primarily the ureter.
Under what circumstances should a pregnant patient have an ICU performed? When the benefits outweigh the risks.
Two classes of iodinated contrast media used for urinary studies: Ionic and non-ionic
What kind of iodinated contrast possesses low osmolality, produces a less severe contrast media reaction, doesn't contain a cation and creates a near isotonic solution? Non-ionic
Iodinated contrast that dissociates into two separate ions after injection, uses a salt as its cation, carboxyl parent group, less expensive, and creates a hypertonic blood plasma. Ionic
Normal range of creatinine in an adult is ____ .6-1.5 mg/dL
How long must a patient be withheld from taking metformin after an iodinated contrast media procedure? 48 hours
Hot flashes are classified as a _______ of iodinated contrast Side effect
Out of the following veins, which is not typically suited for venipuncture for an IVU: basilic, cephalic, axillary, median cubital. Axillary
What angle is the needle advanced into the vein during venipuncture? 20-45 degrees
How long should the venipuncture site be cleaned with an alcohol wipe before needle insertion? 30 seconds
What condition is considered high risk for an iodinated contrast media procedure? Pheochromocytoma
What is the normal range for a patient's BUN? 8-25 mg/100 mL
What is the best course of action for a patient experiencing a mild systemic contrast media reaction? Observe and reassure patient
What is considered a vasovagal reaction? Cardiac arrhythmias
A true allergic reaction to iodinated contrast agents is classified as a ____ reaction Anaphylactic
Tachycardia is a symptom of a _______ type of reaction Moderate systemic
Bradycardia is a symptom of a ______ type of systemic reaction. Severe
What drug can be given to minimize risk of acute renal failure following a contrast media procedure? Lasix
Metformin is a drug given to patients with ____ Diabetes
What drug can be given as part of the premedication protocol before an iodinated contrast media procedure? Prednisone
Excretion of a diminished amount of urine in relation to the fluid intake is the general definition of Oliguria
Constant or frequent involuntary passage of urine is termed _____ Incontinence
The absence of a functioning kidney is called ___ Renal agenesis
Complete cessation of urinary secretion by the kidneys is termed _____ Anuria
True/false: Adult forms of polycystic disease are inherent. True
Hypernephroma is another term for Renal cell carcinoma
Extravasation is classified as a _____ reaction. Local
Laryngeal swelling is classified as a ____ reaction. Severe level
True/false: Bladder carcinoma is three times more common in males than females. True
What condition may produce hydronephrosis? Renal obstruction
What disorder is an example of a congenital anomaly of the urinary system? Ectopic kidney
True/false: The patient should void before an IVU to prevent dilution of the contrast media in the bladder. True
What condition would contraindicate use of ureteric compression? Ureteric calculi
What timing sequence during an IVU are the obliques typically taken? 20 minutes after injection
What projection best demonstrates the renal parenchyma? When is this projection taken? Nephrogram taken immediately after injection
What procedure may require a Brodney clamp? Retrograde urethrogram on a male patient
Which specific body position places the right kidney parallel to the IR? LPO
An AP projection taken during a retrograde cystogram reveals that the symphasis pubis is superimposed over the floor of the bladder. What can fix this problem? Putting the tube on a caudal angle
Before the beginning of an IVU, the radiologist requests that a nephrogram be taken as part of the study When should this projection be taken? 30-60 seconds following the bolus injection
A patient comes to the radiology dept. for an IVU after abdominal surgery. The IVU requires ureteric compression during the procedure. What else can be done to achieve similar results? Put patient in Trendelenburg position for first part of procedure
A radiograph of a RPO taken during an IVU reveals that the left kidney is foreshortened and superimposed over the spine. What error led to this? Over-rotation of the patient.
Passage of large volume of urine Polyuria
Presence of glucose in urine Glucosuria
Excess urea and creatinine in the blood Uremia
Diminished amounts of urine being excreted Oliguria
Presence of gas in the urine Pneumouria
Indicated by presence of uremia, oliguira or anuria Acute renal failure
Constant or frequent involuntary passage of urine Incontinence
Backward return flow of urine Urinary reflux
Absence of a functioning kidney Renal agenesis
Complete cessation of urinary secretion Anuria
Act of voiding Mictuition
Inability to void Retention
Enlargement of prostate gland Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Fusion of lower poles of kidneys during the development of the fetus Horseshoe kidney
Inflammation of the capillary loops of the glomeruli of the kidneys Glomerulonephritis
Artificial opening between the urinary bladder and aspects of the large intestine Vesicorectal fistula
A large stone that grows and completely fills the renal pelvis Staghorn calculi
Increased blood pressure to the kidneys due to atherosclerosis Renal hypertension
Normal kidney that fails to ascend into the abdomen but remains in the pelvis Ectopic kidney
Multiple cysts in one or both kidneys Polycystic kidney disease
The _______ glands are located right above the kidneys Suprarenal
What is the name of the mass of fat that surrounds each kidney? Adipose capsule
An abnormal drop of the kidneys when the patient is placed erect Nephroptosis
Three functions of the urinary system Remove wastes, regulate water, regulate electrolytes
Longitudinal fissure found along the medial border of the kidney is called the ____ Hilum
Structural unit of the kidney Glomeruli
True/false: The effect arterioles carry the blood TO the glomeruli False: efferent = away. Afferent = to the glomeruli
Older name for the glomerular capsule Bowman's
What structure of the medulla is made up of a collection of tubules that drain into the miner calyx? Collecting tube
Which two processes move urine through the ureters? Gravity and peristalsis
Name the junction between the distal ureters and urinary bladder Ureterovesical junction
Name the small gland just inferior to the bladder in males Prostate gland
Total capacity for the average adult bladder 350-500 mL
IV contrast can be administered by 2 methods. Name them Bolus injection, drip infusion
Most IVUs are injected into what vein? Antecubital fossa
Most common size of needle used for bolus injection for adults 18-22 gauge
Expected outcome of a contrast injection Side effect
Leakage of contrast from a vessel into surrounding tissue Extravasation
What type of reaction is a true allergic response to iodinated contrast? ModerateW
What type of reaction causes the blood pressure and heart rate to fall due to stimulation of the vagus nerve? Severe
Temporary failure of the renal system is a _____ reaction Severe
What should the tech do in case of extravasation? Elevate extremity above heart
Subcutaneous swelling caused by allergic reaction is called _____ Angioedema
Contraction of muscles in the walls of the bronchi and broncioles producing a restriction of air passing through them is a condition called what? Bronchospasm
Loss of consciousness due to reduced cerebral blood flow is termed what? Syncope
An eruption of wheals/hives caused by an allergic reaction is called what? Urticaria
Created by: kbunin01