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Chapte_07

TermDefinition
nervous system an organ system that senses and interprets the body's surroundings and controls vital bodily functions
central nervous system (CNS) the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, which is responsible for processing information received from the body
peripheral nervous system a system made up of all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord which is responsible for bringing signals to the central nervous system for interpretation
somatic nervous system a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls intentional, voluntary movement
autonomic nervous system a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary and automatic body functions, such as heartbeat, respiration, and digestion
sympathetic nervous system a part of the autonomic nervous system which uses adrenergic and some cholinergic receptors; repsonsible for "fight or flight" response to stress receptors and some cholinergic receptors
parasympathetic nervous system a part of the autonomic nervous system which uses cholinergic receptors only; responsible for relaxation responses
cerebrum a part of the brain that performs higher cognitive functions, such as thinking and memory
cerebral cortex a layer of gray matter in the cerebrum that plays a key role in memory and thinking
cerebellum a part of the brain that coordinates movement and balance
pons a part of the brain stem that, along with the medulla, regulates automatic and reflex functions of the body
medulla a part of the brain stem that, along with the pons, regulates automatic and reflex functions of the body
brain stem the lower part of the brain that adjoins the spinal cord
thalamus a part of the brain that, along with the hypothalamus, controls various functions, including hormone regulation and body temperature
hypothalamus a part of the brain that, along with the thalamus, controls various functions, including hormone regulation and body temperature
pituitary gland an endocrine gland that helps regulate hormones and controls the growth cycle throughout life
blood-brain barrier (BBB) "a cell structure along the border of the central nervous system where oxygen, carbon dioxide, small molecules (e.g., glucose), and small lipid-soluble drugs pass easily from the blood to CNS tissue, but larger water-soluble molecules, including drugs an
neurotransmitter chemicals that are responsible for transmitting signals from nerve cell to nerve cell within the brain
synaptic space the space between nerve cells
dendrite a protuberance from a nerve cell that brings signals into the cell body
axon a fiber of a nerve cell that carries signals away from the nucleus to neighboring cells
Schwann cell cells that form a myelin sheath that surrounds and protects axons
myelin sheath a fatty substance that surrounds and protects axons; helps with coordinated nerve transmission
“fight or flight” response a set of responses to stressful stimuli regulated by the sympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nerves part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the "fight or flight" response
norepinephrine a hormone and a neurotransmitter
epinephrine a hormone and neurotransmitter; commonly referred to as adrenaline
dopamine a hormone and a neurotransmitter
adrenergic involving adrenaline
parasympathetic nerves part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates restful body functions
cholinergic relating to the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh)
acetylcholine (ACh) a neurotransmitter
alpha receptors a subset of adrenergic receptors found in the blood vessels
beta receptors a subset of adrenergic receptors found in the heart, lungs, and other tissue
beta-one receptors a type of receptor found in the heart
beta-two receptors a type of receptor found in the smooth muscle of arteries and bronchioles in the lungs and also in other tissues
seizure (convulsion) an uncoordinated burst of neuronal activity that results in brain dysfunction
epilepsy a chronic seizure disorder that causes a variety of different types of seizures
partial seizure the most common type of seizure in which a localized area of the brain (and bod) is affected
generalized seizure a type of seizure that involves the entire body and usually results in loss of consciousness
anticonvulsants a class of drugs used to treat seizure disorders
antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) drugs that affect the influx of sodium, calcium, or chloride ions across the nerve cell membrane in some way which slows the transmission of erratic nerve impulses
glutamate an excitatory neurotransmitter that affects sodium and calcium influx
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) an inhibitory neurotransmitter that affects chloride influx
status epilepticus a continuous state of seizure
Parkinson’s disease (PD) a depletion of dopamine in the brain; condition characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity, difficulty moving, and balance problems
substantia nigra a region in the midbrain
dopaminergic agents a class of drugs that enhance or supplement dopamine in the brain; the mainstay of treatment for Parkinson's disease
anticholinergics a class of drugs used to treat mild symptoms of Parkinson's disease by blocking muscarinic receptors in the brain, which helps balance cholinergic activity and reduce tremors
catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors aclass of drugs that blocks an enzyme that metabolizes dopamine which boosts the effects of levodopa and dopamine by allowing dopamine to remain in the body longer
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) a class of mild dopamine-boosting drugs that are used early on in disease progression or as adjunct therapy in advanced Parkinson's disease
tyramine a substance in many aged and pickled foods
Alzheimer’s disease a form of dementia leading to loss of memory, intellect, judgment, orientation, and speech
dementia a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases which affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a condition which is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity
central nervous system (CNS) stimulants "a class of drugs that boost the release and block the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in presynaptic nerve cells which enhances executive functions, increases inhibition, improves attention, and allows for better focus"
adrenergic inhibitors a class of drugs that block alpha and beta receptors, adrenaline receptor types found in the body
adrenergic agonists a class of drugs that stimulate alpha and beta receptors
alpha blockers a class of drugs that block alpha adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscle; used to treat hypertension
beta blockers a class of drugs that block norepinephrine and epinephrine activity on beta adrenergic receptors; used to treat hypertension, angina, and arrhythmias
angina a chest pain caused by inadequate blood flow to a portion of the heart
Class II of antiarrhythmic agents a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress irregulary or fast rhythms of the heart
cardioselective beta blockers a class of drugs that inhibit only beta-one receptors in the heart
vasopressors a class of drugs used to increase heart rate and blood pressure during cardiac arrest or shock
sympathomimetics drugs that stimulate activity that mimics sympathetic response to stress; used in respiratory distress, allergic reactions, and sinus congestion
anticholinergic side effects dry mouth, dry eyes, constipation, urinary retention; consequence of blocking cholinergic activity in the parasympathetic system
ginkgo biloba an herbal product used by some to increase mental function and memory in elderly patients with age-related memory loss and improve cognitive function in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease
ephedra (ma huang) a plant that boosts physical activity, suppresses appetite, and promotes weight loss; banned in the U.S. in 2004 because it can cause heart palpitations, tremors, and insomnia
Created by: softcrylic