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Chapte_06

TermDefinition
skeletal system the bodily system that consists of the bones and joints
bone the substance that forms the skeleton of the body and provides structure and support
bone remodeling the constant process of the buildup and breakdown of bones
osteoclast a cell that breaks down bone tissue and releases calcium into the bloodstream
osteoblast a cell that takes calcium from the blood to build bone tissue
bone density the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone (see also bone mineral density (BMD))
articulation the joints between bones which are necessary for fluid and efficient movement
joints the area where two bones are attached for the purpose of motion of body parts
cartilage a firm, rubbery connective tissue that is found in the joints, respiratory passages, and the ear
synovial membrane a layer of connective tissue that secretes synovial fluid and lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae
synovial fluid a lubricating fluid found in joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae
osteoporosis a reduction in bone density that results in weakened bones and fractures
hip fracture the break or rupture of a hip bone
bone mineral density (BMD) a measure of bone density (see also bone density)
T-score astatistical measure of bone mineral density that can be used to predict risk of fracture
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) a therapy using estrogen to treat menopausal symptoms and sometime osteoporosis
bisphosphonates a class of drugs that prevents bone breakdown so that stronger bones are maintained
selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) a class of drugs that work as estrogen receptors by mimicking the beneficial effects of estrogen on bone mineral density
parathyroid hormone a hormone that regulates the calcium–phosphate balance and stimulates new bone growth
calcium a mineral stored in bones
vitamin D a vitamin that is important in calcium metabolism
osteopenia a condition of reduced bone density and bone weakening
elemental calcium dissociated calcium ions
arthritis a common disorder caused by inflammation of the joint
osteoarthritis (OA) a common type of arthritis that occurs when the cartilage that normally coats the ends of bones inside joints erodes, resulting in painful rubbing
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) a type of arthritis in which the immune system destroys the synovial membrane and produces inflammation within the joint itself
gouty arthritis a type of arthritis in which excessive uric acid accumulates in the blood causing urate crystals to form in the synovial fluid and irritate joints
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) a class of drugs that block pain by inhibiting cyclooxygenase I (COX-1) and II (COX-2)
prostaglandins a hormone-like substance that is produced in response to various stimuli; produces pain in most of the body but is protective in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract
cyclooxygenase I (COX-1) an enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins through out the body
cyclooxygenase II (COX-2) an enzyme that promotes production of the prostaglandins that cause pain and inflammation but not those that protect the GI lining
cyclooxygenase-II (COX-2) inhibitors a class of drugs that block the COX-2 enzyme thereby reducing prostaglandin production in the perifery but not in the gastrointestial tract
disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) a class of drugs used to improve functional status by slowing the disease progression of rhuematic disease
acute gout attack brief and severe attacks of gouty arthritis
chronic gout prophylaxis a long duration or frequent attacks of gouty arthritis
glucosamine a remedy used by some to improve pain and stiffness from osteoarthritis
chondroitin a remedy taken by some in combination with glucosamine for hip and knee osteoarthritis
bone homeostasis a continual process that grows and repairs bone
joint function joints allow movement
estrogen a steroid compound that functions as the primary female sex hormone
appendicular bones a type of bone found in the extremities
axial bones a type of bone that includes the skull, spine, and thorax (ribs)
hinge movement a joint that permits motion only in one plane, forward and backward
ball-and-socket movement a joint that permits motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center
pivot movement a joint where movement is limited to rotation
osteonecrosis bone tissue death
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) a laboratory test used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and a variety of other conditions
rheumatoid factor (RF) a laboratory test used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases/conditions
biological response modifiers substances (or drugs) that stimulate the body's response to infection and disease
Created by: softcrylic