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Chapter_8

TermDefinition
psychiatric disorders a group of disorders where logical thought and emotions are affected; distorted thought and feelings of worry, anxiousness, sadness, or stress do not go away and are severe enough to affect daily life
mood disorders a group of psychiatric disorders characterized by a pervasive disturbance of mood that is not caused by an organic abnormality
neurotransmitter chemicals that are responsible for transmitting signals from nerve cell to nerve cell within the brain
serotonin a hormone and a neurotransmitter
norepinephrine a hormone and a neurotransmitter
dopamine a hormone and a neurotransmitter
synaptic cleft the tiny space between two nerve cells
signal conduction the transmission of neurotransmitters releasing from one cell and connecting with receptors on the membrane of adjacent cells
reuptake the process by which neurotransmitters are taken back up into the presynaptic nerve cell
monoamine oxidase an enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters in neurons
depression a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for an extended period of time
endogenous depression a biological depression which is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain
suicide intentionally ending one's own life
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) a class of drugs used to treat depression by blocking serotonin reuptake into the presynaptic neuron
tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) a class of drugs used to treat depression by blocking serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake into the presynaptic neuron
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) a class of drugs used to treat depression that work by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters
selective-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) "a class of drugs used to treat depression by blocking reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine"
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) a form of anxiety wherein obsessive thoughts intrude daily consciousness and impair function
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) emotional and behavioral changes in the second half of a woman’s menstrual cycle
serotonin syndrome a potentially fatal medical condition that occurs when too much serotonin is present, causing changes in cardiovascular function and even heart attack
priapism an erection lasting longer than four hours
washout the time allowed in between drug therapies allowing the first drug to completely leave the body before a second drug is started; avoids serious drug interactions
tyramine a substance in many aged and pickled foods
smoking cessation quitting tobacco use
anxiety an abnormal function of the neurotransmitters that regulate brain activity, mood, and the fear response
panic disorder an anxiety disorder that causes sudden attacks of terror or panic
generalized anxiety disorder a condition involving excessive worry that causes significant distress or disturbance to work or social functioning and that continues for at least six months
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) a variation of anxiety that occurs in response to a traumatic event after which a reexperiencing syndrome continues for at least a month
benzodiazepines a class of drugs that cause drowsiness and relaxation; used to treat generalized anxiety disorder
insomnia the inability to fall asleep (sleep latency) or stay asleep (sleep maintenance)
sleep hygiene bedtime habits that promote quality sleep
sedatives a class of drugs that is used to induce sleep and relaxation
hypnotic a term for medication that causes sedation and relaxation
bipolar disorder a disorder related to the dysfunction of neurotransmitters such as GABA, serotonin, and norepinephrine; characterized by periods of depression with times of mania
mania a state during which the patient exhibits irritability, elevated mood, excessive involvement in work or other activities, grandiose ideas, racing thoughts, and a decreased need for sleep
schizophrenia a disorder related to an imbalance of various neurotransmitters where positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) are mixed with negative symptoms (withdrawl, ambivalence, behavior changes, memory loss, and confusion) that impair normal daily functio
reactive psychosis a brief episode, lasting from only a few hours to just under a month, of psychotic behavior that occurs in response to a significant psychosocial stressor
delusional disorder a disorder characterized by delusional (but not necessarily illogical) thoughts that last longer than a month but do not impair normal function
schizophreniform disorder a disorder involving symptoms that are similar to those of schizophrenia but occur for less than six months
positive symptoms thoughts, behaviors, or sensory perceptions (hallucinations and delusions) present in a person with a mental disorder, but not present in people in the normal population
negative symptoms the absence of thoughts, perceptions, or behaviors that are ordinarily present in people in the general population; manifests as withdrawl, ambivalence, and confusion
typical antipsychotic agents a class of drugs used to treat psychosis by blocking dopamine receptors that control emotion and thought
extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects side effects which can include tremors, muscular rigidity, and difficulty initiating movement (akinesia)
tardive dyskinesia "a side effect caused by typical antipsychotics which causes uncontrollable tongue thrusting and lip smacking"
atypical antipsychotic agents a class of drug considered to be first-line therapy for schizophrenia and other psychoses; they work by a variety of mechanisms not fully understood
melatonin an endogenous hormone made in the body; also a therapy used for a variety of sleep and insomnia disorders as well as for benzodiazepine and nicotine withdrawal
kava an herbal therapy used by some for anxiety and insomnia which is found to be effective but possibly dangerous
St. John’s wort an herbal product used to treat depression that works similarly to SSRIs
SAMe an herbal therapy used for mild depression, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia
exogenous depression a state of depression that is precipitated by events in a person's life
antidepressants medications prescribed for the treatment of depression
anticholinergic effects side effects which cause dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention
controlled substances schedules five schedules established by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration that classify controlled substances according to their potential for abuse
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) an inhibitory neurotransmitter that affects chloride influx
Created by: softcrylic