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Chapter_10

TermDefinition
muscular system the bodily system responsible for movement, posture, and (to a great extent) body heat
skeletal muscle muscles connected to bones and joints by tendons and provide voluntary movement, such as walking, clapping, and chewing
cardiac muscle muscles found in the heart
smooth muscle muscles found in the intestines and blood vessel walls
striation the apparent stripes on muscle tissue formed by intracellular structures
peristalsis a kind of movement that pushes material through tubes
neuromuscular junction the point where nerve cells interface with muscle cells to initiate muscle contraction
acetylcholine (ACh) a neurotransmitter that is released from the nerve cell, travels across the synaptic cleft, and stimulates muscle cell receptors to cause membrane depolarization
depolarization changes the balance of positive and negative electrical charges along the membrane surface and opens channels
sodium influx the inflow or entry of sodium
intracellular calcium calcium contained inside cell that stimulate muscle fiber contraction when released; release of it is caused by sodium influx
muscle fiber fibers that contract and shorten the muscle
acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine
intramuscular injection (IM) the injection of a substance directly into the muscle
deltoid upper arm muscle; common place for injectible drug administration
gluteus medius buttocks muscle; common place injectible drug administration
musculoskeletal system the system of muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, joints, and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
muscle injury damage or harm to the muscle
spasm an involuntary contraction of muscle fibers
spasticity a condition where the muscles become rigid and difficult to control for coordinated movement
central nervous system (CNS) depressants a class of drugs that block or slow signals in the brain coming from the peripheral nervous system; may be used for muscle relaxation
centrally acting muscle relaxants a class of drugs used to treat muscle spasms related to acute injury by acting in the central nervous system
tolerance a process whereby the body becomes less sensitive to the effects of a drug over time
dependence a condition where the body has gotten used to drug effect, many drugs have this effect; undesirable effects occur upon withdrawl of the drug making stopping therapy difficult; facilitates further use and abuse
hyperhidrosis excess sweating
cosmetic treatment a procedure to modify or improve the appearance of a physical feature, irregularity, or defect
direct acting muscle relaxants a class of drugs that work by blocking the intracellular release of calcium and weakening muscle contractility
neuromuscular blockers agents that cause temporary paralysis
rhabdomyolysis a syndrome where muscle breakdown occurs and toxic cell contents are released into the bloodstream
fibromyalgia a chronic muscle pain condition characterized by musculoskeletal pain in the neck, back, shoulders, chest, arms, and legs that are particuarly sensitive to pressure points on the body; patients also experience fatigue, dizziness and mood changes
myasthenia gravis an autoimmune process that attacks and destroys acetylcholine receptors on muscle cells in the neuromuscular junction
poliomyelitis (polio) an infection of the nerves that control the muscular system
muscular dystrophy a group of genetically acquired conditions causing muscle atrophy (shrinking) and wasting
spinal realignment a chiropractic procedure moving a joint beyond its usual range of motion but not beyond the range of motion the joint is designed to move
chiropractic therapy a therapy that consists of adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column and extremities
Created by: softcrylic