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Chapter_11

TermDefinition
sensory system a bodily system that includes organs that produce the five senses
five senses the five senses are vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch
eyes sensory organs specially designed to sense light and produce vision
pupil a part of the eye where the light enters
lens a part of the eye that focuses light onto the retina for vision
iris a part of the eye that surrounds the pupil and determines eye color
sclera the outer coating of the eyeball, commonly referred to as the white
retina the back of the eye where photoreceptor cells detect light and color
optic nerve "a nerve that connects the eye to the brain and where sight is ultimately perceived and interpreted"
rod cell cells in the eye that are sensitive to light in dimly lit conditions
cone cell cells in the eye that sense color and are responsible for day vision
color blindness a condition in which cone cells do not differentiate colors; a genetic trait that affects mostly men
macula the focal point (fovea centralis) of the retina where light is concentrated for vision
cornea the transparent part of the eye that covers the anterior chamber
anterior chamber the space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris, filled with aqueous humor
aqueous humor a fluid that lubricates and protects the lens of the eye
vitreous humor the fluid inside the eye, behind the lens
ciliary muscle a muscle in the eye that holds the lens in place
conjunctiva forms the mucous membranes of the socket that hold the eye in place
ears sensory organs designed to sense sound waves and produce hearing
external ear part of the ear that captures sound waves and directs them through the auditory canal to the tympanic membrane
sound wave a longitudinal wave in an elastic medium, especially a wave producing an audible sensation
tympanic membrane also called the eardrum; separates the outer ear from the middle ear
cerumen earwax which is produced by follicles lining the auditory canal
middle ear a part of the ear that consists of the eardrum and a cavity
malleus a hammer-shaped bone found in the middle ear
incus one of the three tiny bones in the middle ear
stapes a stirrup-shaped bone found in the middle ear
oval window the entrance to the inner ear
eustachian tube the channel connecting the middle ear to the throat to allow fluid to drain when atmospheric air pressure changes
inner ear part of the ear that includes the semicircular canals and the cochlea
cochlea fluid in this spiral-shaped organ responds to the tapping on the oval window, producing pressure waves; the organ of hearing
organ of Corti "sensory hairs line the surface of this organ and sound is interpreted and perceived when corresponding vibrations in these tiny hairs send signals via nerves to the brain"
presbycusis "damage to sensory hairs in the inner ear occurring naturally with age and exposure to loud noise"
semicircular canals fluid in these canals helps maintain balance and orientation
vestibular nerve a nerve that carries information from the inner ear about head movement
vertigo a condition or malfunction of the semicircular canals whereby balance is affected and dizziness is problematic
upper respiratory tract (URT) a division of the respiratory system which includes nasal passages, sinuses, the back of the throat, the pharynx, and the larynx
nasal passage air cavities in various bones around the nose which are coated with mucous membranes
sinus air-filled cavities surrounding the eyes and nose that are lined with mucus-producing membranes
throat the front portion of the neck beginning at the back of the mouth, consisting of the pharynx and larynx
pharynx the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx; also known as the Adam’s apple
larynx a part of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cord; commonly known as the voice box
trachea the opening to the lungs
nose a sensory organ used for the sense of smell and is also part of the respiratory apparatus
glaucoma "a condition in which abnormally high intraocular pressure pushes on the optic nerve and damages it, possibly causing blindness"
intraocular pressure the pressure of fluids inside the eyeball
open-angle glaucoma a slowly progressing, chronic type of glaucoma managed with medication alone
narrow-angle glaucoma an acute type of glaucoma that comes on quickly and is resolved with surgery followed by drugs
ophthalmic drops liquid topical agents administered directly in the eyes
ophthalmic glaucoma agents a drug class used to treat glaucoma that work by reducing aqueous humor production and, in some cases, enhancing its drainage from the anterior chamber
cytomegalovirus (CMV) a viral infection of the inner eye that occurs almost entirely in patients with HIV or AIDS
conjunctivitis a bacterial infection of the mucous membranes surrounding the eye
herpes zoster a herpes virus that causes shingles and chickenpox
herpes simplex the virus that causes cold sores
eye ointment a thick topical agent administered directly in the eyes
topical anti-infective an agent applied to a local area capable of acting against infection
ophthalmic corticosteroids anti-inflammatory agents that work by inhibiting redness, swelling, itching, and pain administered directly in the eye
eye allergy the hypersensitive response of the immune system to a foreign allergens in the eyes
chronic dry eye the inability to produce sufficient tears and lubrication for the eyes
topical antihistamines a class of drugs used to counteract the physiological effects of histamine production in allergic reactions and colds; applied directly to the eye
decongestants a class of drugs that produce vasoconstriction that shrinks swollen membranes in the nose and makes it easier to breath
mast cell stabilizers a class drugs usually administered by inhalation to prevent allergy cells called mast cells from breaking open and releasing chemicals that cause inflammation
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) a class of drugs that block pain by inhibiting cyclooxygenase I (COX-1) and II (COX-2)
normal saline drops a substance similar to natural tears (see also artificial tears)
artificial tears lubricating eye drops used to treat the dryness and irritation associated with deficient tear production (see also normal saline drops)
retinopathy destruction of the retina
macular degeneration a painless condition that can go undetected until vision is significantly affected and is generally associated with increasing age
dry macular degeneration a condition occurring slowly with age that causes the breakdown of tissue in the macula
wet macular degeneration a condition in which tissue breakdown occurs rapidly from fast blood vessel growth and rupture; not associated with age
external ear infection (otitis externa) an infection of the ear canal and involves bacteria or fungi that thrive in moist environments such as that found in earwax
middle ear infection (otitis media) "an infection of the middle ear found in mostly children because fluid from the middle ear does not drain well in children, allowing bacteria and viruses to flourish"
eardrops topical medications applied to the external ear which are effective only for certain infections
otic antibiotic preparations antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections of the external ear; applied directly in the ear; can be used in cases of middle ear infection in which the tympanic membrane has ruptured or ear tubes are present
drying agent a medication used for treatment or prevention of external ear infections, especially for patients prone to such infections, such as swimmers
earwax remover a solution used for patients with cerumen impaction'; dissolves and liquifies waxy buildup
ototoxicity damage to the ear as a result of chemical or drug exposure
rhinitis inflammation of the nose; commonly known as runny nose
sinus congestion swelling and blockage of one or more of sinus passageways in the skull
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx; commonly known as sore throat
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx; commonly known as loss of voice
epistaxis a medical term for nose bleed
histamine a substance the body releases in response to an allergic reaction that dilates arterioles
antihistamines a class of drugs that block the action of histamine and are used to treat nasal secretions, itching, sneezing, and coughing
histamine (H1) receptor a receptor which is activated by histamine released in the body during an allergic reaction
decongestants a class of drugs that stimulates adrenergic receptors in nasal passages, which constricts blood vessels and reduces swelling
cough suppressants a class of drugs that depress the cough reflex in the cough center of the medulla in the brain
expectorants a class of drugs that are used to liquefy mucus and allows it to be cleared easily; also called mucolytic agents
topical nasal corticosteroids drugs administered intranasally to treat nasal allergy symptoms
echinacea an herb used by some to combat the common cold that may increase phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells “eat up” foreign cells such as bacteria and also enhances lymphocyte activity
zinc a mineral that is a cofactor in many biological processes in the body, including protein synthesis; it also boosts immune system function
vitamin C ascorbic acid, a substance that boosts the immune system and has antioxidant effects
vitamin A (beta carotene) a fat-soluble vitamin that helps promote and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, skin, and good vision
miotic agents drugs that constrict the pupil slightly by contracting the ciliary muscle
Created by: softcrylic