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Chapter_13

TermDefinition
blood a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
hematologic system the system that makes up the blood and supports its physiological functions
plasma the liquid part of blood that contains water, protein, and various dissolved substances; fluid part of the blood that carries blood cells
protein building blocks of body tissues; in the blood common proteins include albumin and immunoglobulins
albumin a type of protein found in the blood
red blood cell (RBC) a blood cell that contains iron and hemoglobin to which oxygen and carbon dioxide bind during transport (see also erythrocyte)
white blood cell (WBC) a blood cell that helps fight disease and infection (see also leukocyte)
platelet a blood cell that helps the blood to clot during injury or bleeding by clumping together and adhering to surrounding tissue (see also thrombocyte)
hemoglobin a protein molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythrocyte a blood cell that contains iron and hemoglobin to which oxygen and carbon dioxide bind during transport (see also red blood cell)
iron a nutrient used in the formation of red blood cells and also helps hemoglobin bring oxygen to cells
folate a nutrient used in the formation of red blood cells and also helps hemoglobin bring oxygen to cells
vitamin B12 a coenzyme necessary for cell reproduction, normal growth, and red blood cell production
erythropoiesis the process whereby new red blood cells are made in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream
erythropoietin a substance made by the kidneys that stimulates erythropoiesis
leukocyte a blood cell that helps fight disease and infection (see also white blood cell)
thrombocyte a blood cell that helps the blood to clot during injury or bleeding by clumping together and adhering to surrounding tissue (see also platelet)
coagulation cascade the process by which blood clots form
thrombin a coagulation protein that facilitates the growth of a functional blood clot
fibrin a coagulation protein that facilitates the growth of a functional blood clot
clotting factor a substance involved in blood clotting
extrinsic pathway the initiation of coagulation cascade as a result of damaged tissue
intrinsic pathway the initiation of coagulation cascade as a result of contact with a foreign surface
blood types the types of blood categorized as A, B, AB, and O, such that AB has both kinds of antigens, and O has none
Rh factor a marker molecule on red blood cells for which blood is typed
anemia a condition of having a lack of normal, healthy red blood cells containing functional hemoglobin in the blood
hemolytic anemia the excessive destruction of red blood cells which can be caused by infection or even drug therapy
iron-deficiency anemia a type of anemia caused by insufficient amounts of iron in the body
pernicious anemia a type of anemia caused by insufficient amounts of vitamin B12 in the body
folate deficiency a type of anemia caused by insufficient amounts of folate in the body
hematocrit (HCT) a laboratory blood test used to diagnose anemia
hemoglobin (Hgb) a laboratory blood test to measure hemoglobing in the blood; used to diagnose anemia
hematopoiesis the formation and development of blood cells in the body
iron supplementation an agent taken for up to six months to replenish iron stores and produce normal red blood cells
folic acid a B vitamin used as a prenatal supplement and to treat anemia
cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) a coenzyme necessary for cell reproduction, normal growth, and red blood cell production
hematopoietic agents a drug class that promotes the formation of blood cells
erythropoietin a hematopoietic agent used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease
complete blood count (CBC) the calculation of all elements (cells) of the blood
stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA) an interruption in oxygen supply to the brain
ischemic stroke a stroke resulting from an obstruction of blood flow; a blood clot or cholesterol plaque occludes a blood vessel that supplies brain tissue
transient ischemic attack (TIA) a block in blood flow to the brain which is brief and causes only temporary dysfunction
hemorrhagic stroke a stroke resulting from a rupture in a blood vessel that supplies an area of the brain
aneurysm a thin-walled protrusion in an artery wall that can easily burst
clotting disorders a class of diseases involving both hypercoagulation and hemophilia
hypercoagulation the overproduction of blood clots
hemophilia the inability to produce blood clots
deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) a condition where a blood clot forms in an extremity such as the lower leg or calf
pulmonary embolism (PE) a condition where a blood clot forms in the lungs
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) a lab test that measures the function of the intrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade
prothrombin time (PT) a lab test that measures the function of the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade
international normalized ratio (INR) a lab test that gives a reference for coagulation involving the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade; used to guide anticoagulant drug therapy
anticoagulant agent a blood clot treatment that halts growth of the clot and keep emboli from forming as the body reabsorbs the clot on its own
anticoagulation the prevention of blood clots via drug therapy
bridge therapy a method of introducing a drug while another is decreased; commonly refers to using alternative blood thinner while warfarin begins to work or while surgery is conducted
direct thrombin inhibitors a class of anticoagulatant drugs that work by inhibiting thrombin directly
drug interactions with warfarin a long list of drugs that can affect the activity of warfarin
anticoagulation antagonists a class of drugs used to reverse anticoagulant agents when coagulation problems (over coagulation) are present
vitamin K a vitamin used in the body to make clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X in the clotting cascade as well as proteins C and S
antiplatelet agents a class of drugs used to prevent or reduce blood clotting after a stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, or heart attack
low-dose aspirin a drug therapy given in low doses (81 mg to 325 mg a day) to prevent clots associated with stroke and heart attack
thrombolytic agents a class of drugs used when an immediate return of blood flow is crucial and works by dissolving clots that have formed; used for massive myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism
hemophilia agents a drug class for hemophilia that replaces specific missing clotting factors and allows the clotting cascade to function restoring normal coagulation
vitamin C ascorbic acid, a substance that boosts the immune system and has antioxidant effects
Created by: softcrylic
 

 



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