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Chapter_14

TermDefinition
respiratory system the system in which oxygen is taken into the body and an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
upper respiratory tract a region of the respiratory tract that includes the nasal passages, sinuses, and the throat area
epiglottis a flap of tissue that covers the tracheal opening to the lungs when you swallow
larynx a part of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cord; commonly known as the voice box
lower respiratory tract a region of the respiratory tract that includes the bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and alveoli
bronchi the two main air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs
bronchioles tiny tubes that are an extension of the bronchi in the lungs
lungs a pair of breathing organs which bring oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide from the blood
alveoli small air sacs in the lungs
gas exchange a function of the lungs that brings oxygen into the blood and releases carbon dioxide
asthma a hyper-reactive inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes coughing, wheezing, breathlessness, and chest tightness
chronic a condition that is not curable; managed long-term
asthma attack acute difficulty breathing caused by hyperreactivity of the airways and bronchospasm
bronchospasm a contraction of the bronchi and bonchioles
pulmonary function test test performed by breathing into a machine that measures air flow and lung function; used for diagnosis of asthma and COPD
peak flow meter a portable device that measures the strength of airflow exiting the lungs
rescue inhaler a device containing drugs which open up the airways by relaxing the muscles in the airway walls
long-term anti-inflammatory agents (inhaled corticosteroids) a drug class used to treat the inflammation of the lung airways; administered by inhaling into the lungs
bronchoconstriction the narrowing of the airways that occurs in an asthma attack
metered dose inhaler (MDI) a device used most often to deliver inhaled drug therapy; delivers an exact dose each use
spacer an inhaler attachment that suspends the medication mist in the air for a few seconds, allowing patients more time to breathe in and activate the inhaler
dry powder inhaler an inhaler that contains drug in dry powder form; used by inhaling through the mouth which pulls drug into their lungs
nebulizer machine a device that sends a stream of air through a drug solution, creating a fine mist that patients inhale by breathing normally through a mask for 10–15 minutes
short-acting beta agonists a class of drugs that work by stimulating beta-2 receptors in the lungs and by producing smooth muscle relaxation in the bronchioles, which open airways; used via inhalation for short-term relief of breathing symptoms related to asthma
corticosteroids a class of drugs based on hormones formed in the adrenal gland, used to reduce inflammation
leukotriene inhibitors a class of drugs used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis by blocking the formation or activity of leukotrienes
leukotriene inflammation mediator that causes mucus secretion and bronchoconstriction
mast cell stabilizers a class of drugs usually administered by inhalation to prevent allergy cells called mast cells from breaking open and releasing chemicals that help cause inflammation
xanthine agents drugs that are direct bronchodilators and are used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a chronic and progressive condition in which airflow is limited by an abnormal inflammatory response
chronic bronchitis a persistent cough that produces sputum lasting at least 3 months out of the year for at least 2 consecutive years
emphysema a condition that causes labored, fast breathing because alveolar walls are damaged or destroyed, causing enlargement of the air spaces deep within the lungs
anticholinergic agents "a class of drugs that work by inhibiting acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that stimulates smooth muscle in the lungs to constrict; used to treat symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease"
bronchodilation expansion of the bronchial passages
priming holding an inhaler away from the body and pushing the canister against the mouthpiece so the medicine sprays into the air to be sure the full dose is delivered
long-acting beta agonists a class of drugs that work by stimulating beta-2 receptors in the lungs and by producing smooth muscle relaxation in the bronchioles, which open airways; used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma
pneumonia a lower respiratory tract infection caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens
nosocomial pneumonia pneumonia contracted while hospitalized or living in a long-term care facility
community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pneumonia contracted from exposure outside of an inpatient facility
tuberculosis (TB) an infectious disease caused by a mycobacterium that infects the lungs
PPD skin test an annual skin test to test for exposure to tuberculosis
induration hardening, swelling, or redness of soft tissue in the body
empirical therapy a therapy that is applied based on common knowledge of the pathogens typically causing certain types of infection
drug-resistant TB strains of tuberculosis that current drugs cannot eradicate
cystic fibrosis (CF) a genetic disease that affects exocrine glands and their ability to transport chloride across cell membranes
percussion a tapping, pounding movement performed on the back and chest to break up and help expectorate mucus from the lungs
pancreatic enzyme supplement supplements that help prevent ductal obstructions and steatorrhea (fatty, foul-smelling diarrhea caused by fatty foods not being absorbed)
lipase a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down fats
protease a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down proteins
amylase a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down starches
smoking cessation quitting tobacco use
nicotine blocker a drug class that blocks nicotine receptors
nicotine supplement an agent used to supply nicotine in controlled amounts (reduced slowly over time), thereby reducing many withdrawal symptoms
echinacea an herb used for the common cold that is supposed to increase phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells “eat up” foreign cells such as bacteria and also enhances lymphocyte activity
zinc a mineral that is a cofactor in many biological processes in the body, including protein synthesis; it also boost the immune function
Created by: softcrylic