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Chapte_05

TermDefinition
integumentary system an organ system, including skin, nails, and hair, that protects the body from exposure to harmful pathogens and harsh substances as well as helping to regulate body temperature
skin outer covering on the body that protects it from harmful pathogens and substances; the largest body organ (see also integumentary system)
epidermis the outermost layer of the skin which is made up of dead and dried cells generated from the dermis
dermis the living, functioning layer of skin where hair follicles and nail beds form, arteries and veins circulate blood, and nerves provide sensation
hair follicle hair follicle
nail bed the layer of cells at the base of a fingernail or toenail
melanocyte a pigment-producing cell in the skin, hair, and eyes
sweat gland small, tubular structures found within and under the skin that produce watery secretions, including pheromones and other odorous material
sebaceous gland glands that secrete oil for hair and skin lubrication
ceruminous gland glands found in the ear canal that release waxy material
subcutaneous tissue the innermost layer of the skin that connects the dermis to underlying organs and tissues
natural skin aging a process that involves the loss of collagen and elastin causing fine lines, wrinkles, dryness, and sagging of the skin
collagen the main protein of skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tissue
elastin an elastic protein that functions in the connective tissue
intrinsic aging the natural process of chronological aging of the skin
extrinsic aging the process of skin aging due to external factors such as sun exposure, air pollutants, smoking, and skin irritation
lesions injuries to the skin caused by external factors, genetic predisposition, or a combination of the two
actinic keratosis a precancerous condition characterized by a small, rough spot occurring on skin that has been chronically exposed to the sun
squamous cell carcinoma a type of cancer found on the surface of the skin
basal cell carcinoma a common type of skin cancer in which the cancer cells resemble the basal cells of the epidermis
melanoma a fast-growing skin cancer affecting the melanocytes, a pigment-producing cell
“ABCDs” a guide to the signs of skin cancer; A is for asymmetry; B is for border irregularity; C is for color variation; D is for diameter
sun exposure the exposure to radiation from the sun
ultraviolet radiation invisible radiation produced by the sun that causes skin damage
sunscreen products applied to the skin to limit skin expopsure to ultraviolet radiation
sun block products applied to the skin to completely occlude ultraviolet light from reaching the dermis
Sun Protection Factor (SPF) the estimated amount of resistance to burning that a product provides
acne a skin condition where pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads appear due to the overproduction of sebum
sebum an oily secretion produced from glands around hair follicles
pimple a small, inflamed elevation of the skin
blackhead a hair follicle filled with bacteria and sebum capped with a blackened mass of skin debris
whitehead a tiny epidermal cyst-like mass with a narrow or obstructed opening on the skin surface
nodular acne a severe form of acne causing deep cysts that permanently damage the dermis layer of the skin (see also acne vulgaris)
acne vulgaris a severe form of acne causing deep cysts that permanently damage the dermis layer of the skin(see also nodular acne)
rosacea a chronic inflammatory disorder seen in adults characterized by redness, visible surface blood vessels, and raised bumps or pustules on the face and cheeks
dandruff a malfunction of the oil-producing glands around hair follicles on the scalp causing layers of the epidermis to flake off
topical acne agent products applied on the skin to control mild acne; may be used in combination with oral agents
benzoyl peroxide a bleaching agent used for the treatment of acne that promotes cell turnover in follicles
salicylic acid a topical keratolytic agent used to treat acne
keratolytic an agent that breaks down and peels off dead skin cells, preventing them from clogging pores
retinoids a vitamin A derivative that is needed for vision, growth, bone formation, reproduction, immune system function, and skin health; a class of drugs used for acne and reducing signs of intrinsic aging of the skin
iPLEDGE a special distribution program approved by the U.S. FDA intended to prevent the use of isotretinoin during pregnancy due to the high risk of birth defects
selenium sulfide an active ingredient used most in dandruff products
pyrithione zinc an active ingredient used most in dandruff products
coal tar a messy and odorous substance used in dandruff products
dermatophyte a fungus that causes skin infections
tinea a dermatophyte that causes ringworm, athlete’s foot, and jock itch
ringworm a fungal infection on the surface of the skin
athlete’s foot a fungal infection that affects the feet; related to ring worm
jock itch a fungal infection of skin in the groin area that cause an itchy rash
herpes simplex virus type 1 a herpes virus that causes cold sores
herpes zoster a herpes virus that causes shingles and chickenpox
shingles an inflammation and reemergence of a systemic viral infection that affects nerve pathways near the skin and manifests as painful skin lesions
genital herpes a sexually transmitted disease that manifests in chancre sores on the skin
human papilloma virus (HPV) a virus that causes genital warts and has been linked to cervical cancer in women
impetigo a skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus
topical antibiotics medicines applied to the skin to kill or stop the growth of bacteria in cuts or scrapes, impetigo, and diaper rash
lice parasitic insects that use the human body as a host
head lice parasitic insects passed from person to person through direct contact or by sharing hats, hairbrushes/combs, clothing, or sometimes bedding
pubic lice parasitic insects passed only through sexual contact
scabies insects that burrow into the epidermal layer of the skin and feed on cellular material
pediculicide a drug used to kill lice
scabicides a drug used to kill scabies
lindane the lotion form of the drug is used to kill scabies; shampoo form is used for lice
pyrethrin a drug used to kill head lice
permethrin a drug used to treat either lice or scabies
hair loss the thinning and loss of hair
androgenic alopecia a common type of hair loss where the hair follicles shrink in size and produce finer hair; male pattern baldness
alopecia areata a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting hair follicles and may cause areas of complete hair loss
dermatitis an itchy, inflamed skin condition that can be caused by a variety of factors
pruritic itching
contact dermatitis an itchy, inflamed skin condition due to exposure to irritants or allergenic substances
seborrheic dermatitis an inflamed skin condition characterized by a greasy, scaly area on the skin that is sometimes colored red, brown, or yellow (see also cradle cap)
cradle cap an inflamed skin condition characterized by a greasy, scaly area on the skin that is sometimes colored red, brown, or yellow (see also seborrheic dermatitis)
atopic dermatitis a chronic skin condition that causes dry, flaky, red skin that is very itchy (see also eczema)
eczema a chronic skin condition that causes dry, flaky, red skin that is very itchy (see also atopic dermatitis)
psoriasis an immunologic condition affecting T cell activity in the skin
diaper rash a skin irritation that occurs when skin remains wet for long periods of time and tissue breakdown allows bacteria on the surface to gain entry to deeper tissues
calamine a lotion used to treat mild itching from insect bites, rashes, hives, poison ivy or oak, and other allergic reactions
topical corticosteroids anti-inflammatory drugs applied to the skin that work by inhibiting redness, swelling, itching, and pain in the dermal layer of the skin
hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA) suppression appetite changes, weight gain, fat redistribution, fluid retention, and insomnia often caused by systemic absorption of corticosteroids that suppress normal feedback mechanisms of the pituitary and hypothalmus
calcineurin inhibitors a class of immunomodulator drugs that work by inhibiting T cell activation, which prevents release of chemical mediators that promote inflammation
vitamin D analog a compound that has a similar structure and chemical make-up of vitamin D; regulates skin cell growth and developmet; used for psoriasis
wound a break in body tissue due to external factors
decubitus ulcer severe wounds that involve tissue damage through the epidermis and dermis layers (see also pressure sores)
pressure sore severe wound caused by friction or constant pressure that involves tissue damage through the epidermis and dermis layers (see also decubitus ulcer)
bedsore ulcers caused by constant pressure applied to an area of skin (see pressure sore), usually from lying down in one position for a long time
debridement the cleaning of a wound and removal of necrotic (dead) tissue
regranulation the process of building new skin layers over a wound area
burn wounds caused by heat and thermal injury or by electrical and chemical sources
photosensitivity an excessive response to solar exposure, wherein skin easily burns after a short time in the sun
drug allergy the hypersensitive response of the immune system to a medication
urticaria (hives) an allergic skin reaction that producse red, itchy, raised areas of skin that appear in varying shapes and sizes
anaphylaxis a severe and potentially fatal allergic reaction to drug therapy, causing airway swelling and affecting one’s ability to breathe
Stevens-Johnson syndrome a potentially life-threatening skin reaction which begins as a rash and, if not treated, can cause a condition in which layers of skin slough off, exposing vulnerable tissues beneath; side effect of some drugs
heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) an allergic reaction to the anticoagulant heparin which causes a drop in platelet count in the blood, but first manifests as a rash on the trunk and/or upper legs
lanolin a wool grease added as a moisturizer to creams and lotions
cocoa butter a vegetable fat made from cocoa beans added as a moisturizer to creams and lotions
vegetable/seed oils an oil added as a moisturizer to creams and lotions
vitamin E an antioxidant that protects cells against the effects of free radicals; has been used for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetic neuropathy
vitamin A a fat-soluble vitamin that helps promote and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, skin, and good vision
vitamin D a vitamin that is important in calcium metabolism and is sometimes added to moisturizers to promote skin health and healing
aloe vera an active compound that has several proven healing and anti-inflammatory properties; used for healing burns and minor wounds
stratum corneum the outermost layer of the epidermis
stratum spinosum the outermost layer of the epidermis characterized by the presence of prickle cells
stratum germinativum the deepest layer of the epidermis
fascia a band of tissue below the skin; made of connective tissue between the skin and underlying muscles
adipose tissue fat cells located below the skin
ultraviolet radiation type A invisible radiation produced by the sun that produces tanning, but can burn with prolonged exposure
ultraviolet radiation type B invisible radiation produced by the sun that can lead to burning
“rule of 9s” the process of dividing the surface area of the burned skin by dividing the body into major sections, each representing approximately 9% of total surface area
first-degree burn a superficial burn resulting in damage of the surface epidermal layers, causing redness and possibly peeling, but no blisters
second-degree burn a burn resulting in damage of the epidermis and dermis skin layers, causing redness, blisters, swelling, pain, and possible scarring
third-degree burn a burn resulting in destruction of epidermis and dermis layers, with possible damage to tissue underneath; permanent scarring is problematic and sensory nerve endings are typically damaged or destroyed
Created by: softcrylic