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Chapte_04

TermDefinition
acquired immunity a systemic immune response based on prior exposure (memory) to a pathogen that destroys foreign cells and cells infected with pathogen (virus)
helper T cell lymphocytes that detect specific antigens (molecules on foreign pathogens) and stimulate killer T cells and B cells to become active
killer T cell lymphocytes that attack cells of the body infected with foreign antigens
B cell lymphocytes that mature into plasma cells and release antibodies, which fight off viruses before they infect cells
immunoglobulins (Ig) proteins that attach to foreign substances and assist in destroying them; also called antibodies
autoimmune disorder when the immune system malfunctions and begins producing antibodies against normal, healthy cells
allergic reaction the hypersensitive response of the immune system when the body senses a foreign substance
hypersensitivity an exaggerated immune response to what is perceived as a foreign substance
anaphylaxis a severe hypersensitivity (allergic) process mediated by antibodies, basophils, and mast cells that causes swelling of the airways, blood vessel dilation, and shock, if not treated quickly
Type I hypersensitivity an immediate allergic or anaphylactic reaction that can be life threatening
Type II hypersensitivity an allergic type reaction that stimulates the complement system where antibodies attach to foreign cells and attract complement molecules, which in effect poke holes in these cells and kill them
Type III hypersensitivity an allergic type reaction to toxins in the body; involves antibodies
Type IV hypersensitivity a immune reaction mediated by killer T cells; also called delayed response
immunization administering a drug that uses acquired immunity to fight and protect against specific diseases
natural immunization immunity that occurs when your body is exposed to foreign antigens in normal daily life and produces antibodies against them
artificial immunization immunity that occurs when an antigen is intentionally introduced to the body via vaccination
active immunity immunity produced by exposing the body to an antigen or part of an antigen, which then uses the body’s natural immune response to make antibodies
passive immunity immunity produced when antibodies themselves are introduced naturally or artificially into the bloodstream
vaccination the act of administering a substance into the body in order to produce immunity to disease
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) a United States agency under the Department of Health and Human Services that protects and promotes the health and safety of all Americans
schedule for childhood and adult vaccines a list of vaccines, including the dosing and timing, needed for adults and children
vaccine a substance introduced into the body in order to produce immunity to disease
immunization clinic a clinic where they provide immunizations; may offer advice about what vaccines are appropriate for various areas of the world
flu shot a vaccine which provides immunity to a variety of influenza viruses and is updated and recommended annually
travel vaccine a vaccine for diseases common in other parts of the world which is given well in advance of travel to allow the immune system enough time to mount the appropriate response and confer full immunity
vaccine information sheet (VIS) information sheets that explain the benefits and risks of a vaccine
interferons easily degradable protein products that are used for a variety of conditions affecting the immune system
multiple sclerosis (MS) an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy the myelin sheath surrounding many nerve cells
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatitis A inflammation of the liver due to the ingestion of contaminated food or liquids
hepatitis B inflammation of the liver; transmitted via sexual activity, use of contaminated needles, receipt of blood products infected with hepatitis, or from mother to infant
hepatitis C inflammation of the liver; primarily spread by blood-to-blood contact
organ transplant taking healthy organs and tissue from one person and moving it to another person
immunosuppression the suppression of the immune response in order to prevent the rejection of implanted organs
organ rejection the immune response to transplanted tissue where lymphocytes see this tissue as foreign and attack (destroy) it
graft versus host disease a complication of organ transplant where T cells remaining in a transplanted organ mount an attack against the recipient’s body after transplant
immunosuppressant medication used to suppress immune system activity in order to prevent organ rejection or to treat autoimmune disorders
systemic (oral) corticosteroids drugs with potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects taken orally; achieve systemic absorption and action
antitoxins antibodies injected into the body to reduce effects from toxins in the bloodstream
antivenoms (antivenins) antibodies injected into the body to reduce effects from venoms in the bloodstream
immunoglobulin A (IgA) a class of immunoglobulins found in mucous membranes of the digestive system and respiratory tract, tears, sweat, and saliva
immunoglobulin D (IgD) a class of immunoglobulins found in plasma and on the surface of lymphocytes
immunoglobulin G (IgG) a class of immunoglobulins that is the most common antibody in blood
immunoglobulin E (IgE) a class of immunoglobulins that is found in basophils and mast cells and is responsible for mounting allergic response and fighting parasites
immunoglobulin M (IgM) a class of immunoglobulins that is the first antibody to be produced after exposure to a pathogen
pathogen a foreign organism that causes infection
antigen molecules on foreign cells, viruses, and other pathogens
antigen-presenting cell (APC) a cell that presents antigen in a form that T cells can recognize
MHC/antigen complex a molecule on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell containing antigen that presents it for T cells to detect
antigen-specific T cell receptor a molecule on the surface of T cells for recognizing specific antigens
cytokine a protein produced by helper T cells involved in the communication with killer T cells and B cells
CD4 helper T cell a type of T cell that has CD4 helpers, a glycoprotein molecule, which recognizes foreign antigens and secretes cytokines
antibody the part of the immune system that neutralizes antigens or foreign substances in the body; produced by B cells
foreign T cell epitope antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor
lymphocyte white blood cells involved in detecting and destroying specific pathogens such as viruses
live attenuated virus virus whose pathogenicity has been reduced by serial passage or other means
deactivated virus virus or partial virus that has been altered in some way to remove pathogenic properties but retais antigenic similarities so as to activate the immune response
Created by: softcrylic