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Chapte_03

TermDefinition
immune system the body’s built-in defense mechanism against invading pathogens and infection
pathogen a foreign organism that causes infection
nonspecific immunity the immune systems immediate response right at the site of a cut or wound (see also innate response)
innate response the immune systems immediate response right at the site of a cut or wound (see also nonspecific immunity)
inflammation the body's response to infection, irritation, or other injury causing redness and swelling
acquired immunity a systemic immune response based on prior exposure (memory) to a pathogen that destroys foreign cells and cells infected with pathogen (virus)
leukocyte a white blood cell that helps fight disease and infection (see also white blood cell)
white blood cell (WBC) a blood cell that helps fight disease and infection (see also leukocyte)
lymphocyte blood cells that detect, remember, and destroy specific pathogens such as viruses
T cell lymphocyte that forms the basis of acquired immunity; detect and destroy virus infected or malignant cells
cellular immunity the process of detecting cells that are infected with viruses and initiating the immune response to destroy them
killer T cells lymphocytes that attack cells of the body infected with foreign antigens (viruses)
helper T cells lymphocytes that detect specific antigens (molecules on foreign pathogens) and stimulate killer T cells and B cells to become active
B cell lymphocytes that mature into plasma cells and release antibodies, which fight off viruses before they infect cells
humoral immunity the process of making antibodies to prevent further infection
antibody the part of the immune system that neutralizes antigens or foreign substances in the body; produced by B cells
lymphatic system a set of vessels that filter lymph
lymph the fluid that has leaked out of the bloodstream into tissue spaces around the body
lymph node the place wherelymph is filtered and put back into the bloodstream; prime location where foreign pathogens are often detected and destroyed by white blood cells
WBC count the number of white blood cells in the blood
complete blood count (CBC) the measureent and calculation of all elements (types of cells) in the blood
bacteria single-celled animals that live practically everywhere, some are harmful and some are not
aerobic property of bacteria that requires oxygen to live
anaerobic property of bacteria where they can survive in an environment void of oxygen
gram-positive property of bacteria that have a thick cell wall where they absorb a purple stain called crystal violet
gram-negative property of bacteria that have a thin cell wall where they do not absorb a purple stain called crystal violet
antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections
bacteriostatic property of an antibiotic where pathogens are not killed but growth and progression is hindered, allowing the body’s immune system to fight them off
bacteriocidal property of an antibiotic that kills a pathogen outright
spectrum of activity the range of bacteria types that a drug can treat; a drug with a wide spectrum of activity kills many types of bacteria whereas a drug with a narrow spectrum of activity kills limited types of bacteria
culture and sensitivity (C&S) laboratory test where a sample or swab of a bacteria is taken and grown in culture and then various antibiotics are tested on it to determine which drug has the best activity on the pathogen
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) the amount of drug needed to inhibit growth of the bacteria
antibiotic resistance bacteria's defense mechanisms that resist or inactivate antibiotics used on them
nosocomial infection infections that are acquired while in the hospital or nursing home and are often drug resistant and difficult to treat
penicillins a class of drugs that kills bacteria by inhibiting the formation of their cell wall, without which the cell cannot survive
beta-lactam ring a ring-like structure within penicillin drug molecules
beta-lactamase an enzyme that bacteria produce that breaks apart the ring structure of penicillin, rendering the drug inactive
beta-lactamase inhibitor an agent that interferes or blocks the enzyme that bacteria produce which breaks apart the ring structure of penicillin
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria and the ensuing infection that is resistant to all methicillin and antistaphylococcal penicillins and thus few drugs can treat them
cephalosporins drugs that kill bacteria by inhibiting the formation of their cell wall
generations groups of drugs categorized by their activity and time of development and release to market
monobactams a class of drugs that work by inhibiting formation of the cell wall used for gram-negative bacterial infections
carbapenems a drug class that works by inhibiting formation a cell wall used for mixed infections that have both gram-positive and -negative bacteria
vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) enterococci bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin
nephrotoxicity kidney damage due to exposure to drug therapy
ototoxicity hearing loss due to exposure to drug therapy
red man syndrome hypotension, flushing, redness in the neck and face, and rash that may occur if vancomycin is not administered slowly
macrolides a class of drugs that works by blocking bacteria’s ability to produce needed proteins for survival
aminoglycosides a class of drugs that kills bacteria by blocking their ability to make essential proteins for life
synergistic drug therapy the cooperative action of two or more drugs
tetracyclines a class of bacteriostatic drugs that inhibit protein synthesis within bacterial cells
fluoroquinolones a class of drugs that kill bacteria by inhibiting the enzyme that helps DNA coil (see also quinolones)
quinolones a class of drugs that kills bacteria by inhibiting the enzyme that helps DNA coil (see also fluoroquinolones)
sulfonamides a class of bacteriostatic drugs that work by blocking bacteria from making folic acid, an essential substance for life (see also sufal drugs)
sulfa drugs a class of bacteriostatic drugs that work by blocking bacteria from making folic acid, an essential substance for life (see also sulfonamides)
nitrofurantoin a drug used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs); covers bacteria similar to those covered by sulfonamides
metronidazole a drug that is structured like an antifungal drug but works like an antibiotic
virus an organism with nucleic material surrounded by a protein shell (not a full cell) that uses other living cells to replicate
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a virus that attaches selectively to T cells, key components of the immune system
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a deadly disease caused by the progression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
antiviral agent an agent that kills viruses or suppresses their replication
“cocktail” a combination of drugs used together; the cadre of drugs used against HIV and AIDS
nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, NtRTIs) a class of drugs used for HIV infection that work by inhibiting reverse transcriptase, which forms pro-DNA molecules inside of T cells
non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) a class of drugs used for HIV infection that inhibit reverse transcriptase, which forms pro-DNA molecules
protease inhibitors (PIs) a class of drugs that work by blocking the enzyme that affects the assembly of proteins into working HIV viruses
fusion inhibitor a class of drugs that block the HIV virus from attaching to cellular membranes
chemokine coreceptor (CCR5) inhibitor a class of drugs that block the HIV virus from attaching to cellular membranes
integrase inhibitor a class of drugs that prevents the HIV virus from inserting itself into the host DNA
funguses (fungi) one-celled plant organisms without chorophyll; includes yeasts and molds
yeast a one-celled organism of the fungi family
dermatophyte funguses of the skin
candidiasis a common fungus that causes vaginal yeast infections and oral thrush
ergosterol a substance in the fungi that helps form the wall of the cell
pulse dosing drug dosing where drug is given one week a month to reduce the amount of time the drug comes in contact with the liver or oher tissues of the body, which decreases the toxic effects
liposome a formulation where drug molecules are surrounded with a fat/oil layer to decrease the drug’s ability to come into direct contact with body tissues and thus reduces its toxic effects
parasite organisms that live off of a host
protozoa single-celled parasites; many of which cause infection, often through the oral–fecal route
echinacea an herb used for the common cold that is supposed to increase phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells “eat up” foreign cells such as bacteria and also enhances lymphocyte activity
zinc a mineral that is a cofactor in many biological processes in the body, including protein synthesis; it also boosts immune system function
vitamin C ascorbic acid, a substance that boosts the immune system and has antioxidant effects
disulfiram reaction a reaction o sulfa and other drugs including symptoms of flushing, nausea, vomiting, and sweating that occurs when consuming alcohol while taking drug therapy
first-generation cephalosporins a class of antibiotics that work best on gram-positive bacteria
second-generation cephalosporins a class of antibiotics used for gram-positive bacteria and some gram-negative bacteria
third-generation cephalosporins a class of antibiotics used against severe gram-negative infections
fourth-generation cephalosporins a class of antibiotics uses for Pseudomonas infections
Created by: softcrylic