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Musculoskeletal System

periosteum outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous (spongy) bone contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis shaft of the long bone
epiphysis (pl. epiphyses) end of each long bone
bone marrow material found in the cavities of bone
red marrow thick, bloodlike material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation
yellow marrow soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
maxilla upper jawbone
mandible lower jawbone
vertebral column made up of bones called vertebra (pl. vertebrae), through which the spinal cord runs. protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
cervical vertebrae first set of seven bones, forming the neck
thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) second set of 12 vertebrae. they articulate w the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine
sacrum next set of five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones, forming joints called the sacroiliac joints
coccyx four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
lamina (pl. laminae) part of the vertebral arch
clavicle collarbone
scapula shoulder blade
acromion process extension of the scapula, which forms the superior point of the shoulder
sternum breastbone
xiphoid process lower portion of the sternum
humerus upper arm bone
ulna and radius lower arm bones
olecranon process projection at the proximal end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow
carpal bones wrist bones
metacarpal bones hand bones
phalanges (sing. phalanx) finger and toe bones
pelvic bone, hip bone made up of three bones fused together
ischium lower, posterior portion on which ones sits
ilium upper, wing-shaped part on each side
pubis anterior portion of the pelvic bone
acetabulum large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
femur upper leg bone
tibia and fibula lower leg bones
patella (pl. patellae) kneecap
calcaneus heel bone
metatarsal bones foot bones
articular cartilage smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints
meniscus crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis catilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together anteriorly at the midline
synovia fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
bursa (pl. bursae) fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint
tendon band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
skeletal (striated) muscles attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and by working in pairs (voluntary muscles because we have control over them)
smooth (unstriated) muscles located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. (involuntary because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves)
cardiac muscles(myocardium) forms most of the wall of the heart (involuntary contraction produces heartbeat)
abduction moving away from the midline
adduction moving toward the midline
inversion turning inward
eversion turning outward
extension movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position, increasing the angle between the bone and the joint
flexion movement in which a limb is bent, decreasing the angle between the bone and the joint
pronation movement that turns the palm down
supination movement that turns the palm up
rotation turning around its own axis
ankyl/0 stiff, bent
kinesi/o movement, motion
kyph/o hump (increased convexity of the spine)
lamin/o lamina (thin, flat plate or layer)
lord/o bent forward (increased concavity of the spine)
my/o, myos/o muscle
myel/o bone marrow
oste/o bone
petr/o stone
scoli/o crooked, curved
-asthenia weakness
-clasia, -clasis, -clast break
-desia surgical fixation, fusion
-physis growth
-schisis split, fissure
ankylosis abnormal condition of stiffness (often referring to fusion of a joint, such as the result of chronic arthritis)
arthritis inflammation of the joint
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
cranioschisis fissure of the cranium (congenital)
diskitis inflammation of the intervertebral disk (aka discitis)
fibromyalgia pain in the fibrous tissues and muscles (common condition characterized by widespread pain and stifffness, fatigue, and disturbed sleep)
kyphosis abnormal condition of a hump (aka hunchback, humpback)
lordosis abnormal condition of bending forward (aka swayback)
maxillitis inflammation of the maxilla
meniscitis inflammation of the meniscus
myasthenia muscle weakness
myeloma tumor of the bone marrow (malignant)
osteitis inflammation of the bone
osteoarthritis inflammation of the bone and joint
osteochondritis inflammation of the bone and cartilage
osteofibroma tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue (benign)
osteomalacia softening of bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
osteopenia abnormal reduction of bone mass (can lead to osteoporosis)
osteopetrosis abnormal condition of stonelike bones (caused by defective osteoclast resorption of bone)
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of the bone
polymyositis inflammation of many muscles
rachischisis fissure of the vertebral column (congenital...aka spina bifida)
rhabdomyolysis dissolution of striated muscle (caused by trauma, extreme exertion, or drug toxicity)
sarcopenia abnormal reduction of connective tissue
scoliosis abnormal condition of (lateral) curved (spine)
spondylarthritis inflammation of vertebral joints (aka spondyloarthritis)
spondylosis abnormal condition of the vertebrae (general term used to describe changes to the spine from osteoarthritis or ankylosis)
synoviosarcoma malignant tumor of the synovial membrane
tendinitis inflammation of the tendon
tenosynovitis inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane
ankylosing spondylitis form of arthritis that first affects the spine and adjacent structures and that, as it progresses, causes a forward bend of the spine (aka Strumpell-Marie arthritis or rheumatoid spondylitis)
bunion abnormal prominence of the joint at the base of the great toe, the metatarsal-phalangeal joint (aka hallux valgus)
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve
Colles fracture type of wrist fracture. at the distal end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward
exostosis abnormal benign growth of the surface of a bone
fracture (fx) broken bone
gout disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (tophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis
herniated disk rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots (aka slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated nucleus pulposus HNP)
Lyme disease infection caused by a bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi) carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans by the bite of the infected tick. symptoms vary, including rash at bite site, flulike symptoms such as fever, headache, joint pain, and fatigue.
muscular dystrophy (MD) group of hereditary diseases characterized by degeneration of muscle and weakness
myasthenia gravis (MG) chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness and thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle cell. face, larynx, and throat frequently affected
osteoporosis abnormal loss of bone density that may lead to an increase in fractures of the ribs, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, hips, and wrists after slight trauma
plantar fasciitis inflammation of plantar fascia, connective tissue fo the sole of the foot, due to repetitive injury. common cause of heel pain
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic systemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue throughout the body
spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal with compression of nerve roots. condition is either congenital or due to spinal degeneration. symptoms are pain radiating to the thigh or lower legs and numbness or tingling in the lower extremities
aponeurorrhaphy suturing of an aponeurosis
arthrocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from a joint
arthroclasia (surgical) breaking of a (stiff) joint
arthrodesis surgical fixation of a joint (aka joint fusion)
arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint
bursectomy excision of a bursa
carpectomy excision of a carpal bone
chondrectomy excision of a cartilage
Created by: nallain