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atom the most basic unit of matter, what everything can get broken down into
element a type of atom with a specific amount of protons, electrons, and neutrons
periodic table of the elements an arrangement of naturally occurring elements, along with those synthesized in the laboratory setting, into rows and columns that group atoms by their chemical properties
proton a particle carrying a positive electrical charge that is found in the nucleus of an atom; determines an element’s atomic number
neutron a neutral, neither positively nor negatively charged, particle found in the nucleus of an atom
electron a negatively charged particle found in an atom
ion atoms or molecules with an electrical charge
isotope an atom with added neutrons which causes the atom to become heavier, but the charge does not change; usually radioactive
covalent bond a strong bond between two atoms that share electrons; forming a neutrally charged molecule
ionic bond a bond between two atoms where one element has entirely lost and another has gained electrons; the two atoms remain connected by electromagnetic attraction
molecule two or more atoms combined via covalent or ionic bonds
carbon backbone chains of carbon atoms strung together or in ring-like structures
functional group the side portions of a molecule that give it the chemical properties that allow it to react with others in specific ways
isomers compounds (i.e., molecules with differing types of atoms) with the exact same chemical makeup (the same number and types of atoms), but they are not arranged the same way within space
stereoisomers isomers of the same molecule that are mirror images of each other
carbohydrate a compound that produces energy the body can use to sustain life; an essential part of nutrition
peptide a compound with an aminon group that forms a building block of protein molecules
lipid compound that forms long chains of covalently bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms; soluble in fat or oil
nucleic acid part of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which forms the genetic material contained in the nucleus of each cell
pH scale a way to measure acidic and basic properties of substances
acid substances with a low pH (below 7)
base substances with a high pH (over 7)
hydrogen ion a charged particle created when an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom is lost, leaving a lone proton with a positive charge (H+)
receptor a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cell) that selectively receives and binds a specific substance
lock and key mechanism the cells of the body have many receptor molecules (locks) and substances (keys), which are endogenous chemicals that act as messengers and when a messenger molecule connects with a receptor, it triggers a series of reactions within the cell (see also dru
drug receptor theory the cells of the body have many receptor molecules (locks) and substances (keys), which are endogenous chemicals that act as messengers and when a messenger molecule connects with a receptor, it triggers a series of reactions within the cell (see also loc
pharmacodynamics the study of drug receptor theory at a molecular level and how that interaction translates to drug activity on the entire body
mechanism of action the interaction through which a drug produces its pharmacological effect
agonist molecule (drug) that stimulates a specific response when binding to receptors
antagonist molecule (drug) that blocks a response when binding to receptors
dose-response curve the graphical depiction of the relationship between dose and effect of a drug
ceiling effect the point at which no further increase in drug concentration in the blood produces additional response
therapeutic range blood concentrations in the middle of the dose-response curve; the desired blood concentration range above minimum therapeutic concentration but below toxic concentration
minimum therapeutic concentration blood concentration at which desired therapeutic effect is first seen; the lower threshold of the therapeutic range on the dose-response curve
toxic concentration blood concentrations very high on the dose-response curve; the point at which incidence of toxic effects may outweigh any benefit of the drug and thus pose a risk
efficacy the effectiveness of a drug
potency the power or strength of a drug
steady state constant drug concentration maintained in the therapeutic range, which is achieved by timed repeated doses or continuous infusion
loading dose a drug dose that is large enough to bring blood concentrations up to the therapeutic range immediately
trough the point at which a drug is at the lowest concentration between doses
peak the point at which a drug is at the highest concentration between doses
pharmacokinetics this study uses mathematical modeling to observe and predict how a drug enters, moves around, and leaves the body (see also chaper 1)
absorption the process by which drugs enter the bloodstream
active transport movement of molecules across a membrane through the expenditure of energy
passive transport movement of molecules across a membrane on their own
concentration gradient the change of concentration over a certain distance; molecules usually move from an area of high to low concentration (along a concentration gradient)
distribution the process by which drugs move around in the bloodstream and reach other tissues of the body
volume of distribution (Vd) the mathematical representation of how a drug is distributed within the compartments of the body
two-compartment model a mathematical method of representing distribution of drug where highly fat- or lipid-soluble molecules accumulate in fatty tissue and then slowly released back into the bloodstream over time
protein binding when drug molecules bind to proteins in the blood and cannot reach their intended site of action; distribution can be affected
blood-brain barrier (BBB) a cell structure along the border of the central nervous system where oxygen, carbon dioxide, small molecules (e.g., glucose), and small lipid-soluble drugs pass easily from the blood to CNS tissue, but larger water-soluble molecules, including drugs and
elimination water-soluble molecules, including drugs and most pathogens, do not easily enter the brain or spinal cord
half-life (t1/2) the time it takes for half (50%) of a drug to be cleared from the blood
metabolism a set of chemical reactions that happens within an organism which deals with the buildup and breakdown of substances
first-pass effect the process by which the liver metabolizes drugs as they “pass,” or travel through it preventing the full dose from reaching general circulation to rest of the body; effect of drugs with first-pass effect is lessened or effectively eliminated
prodrug a drug that relies on metabolism to activate it
cytochrome P450 enzyme system a liver enzyme system that frequently deactivates drugs
excretion the process by which drug molecules are removed from the bloodstream; primarily occurs in the kidneys
pediatric practice the area of medicine that deals with infants and children
geriatric practice the area of medicine that deals with elderly patients
liver function metabolism occurs primarily in the liver; problems in it's function can affect drugs eliminated via metabolism
kidney function excretion happens most often through the kidneys; problems in it's function can greatly affect drug elimination
atomic weight the weight of one atom
atomic number the atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the genetic material contained in the nucleus of each cell
onset of action the time from dose to when the desired therapeutic effect begins to be seen
duration of action the length of time desired therapeutic effect of a drug is present
left shift graphic representation of potency (when lower blood concentration of one drug produces the same therapeutic effect as a higher concentration of another drug); on a dose-response curve the more potent drug has a concentration curve to the left of a less po
Created by: softcrylic



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