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Chapte_21

TermDefinition
cancer a term that describes a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of dysfunctional cells
monoclonal a single cell
oncogenes a class of genes that promote cancer formation
tumor-suppressor genes a class of genes that turn off or down-regulate the proliferation of cancer cells
proto-oncogenes normal genes that code for growth factors or their receptors but can turn into oncogenes
apoptosis cell death
tumor cell proliferation the growth and reproduction of tumor cells
tumor burden the size of a tumor
chemotherapy the use of drugs to treat disease; most often refers to drugs used to treat cancer
cell-kill hypothesis a hypothesis that presumes each cycle of chemotherapy kills a certain percentage of cancer cells
cytotoxic drugs a drug class that works by interfering with some normal process of cell function or proliferation and is used to treat cancer
cell cycle the process by which both normal and cancer cells divide
cell cycle-specific drugs a drug class that interferes with the division of cells during a susceptible phase of the cell cycle and is used to treat cancer
cell cycle-nonspecific drugs a drug class that works at any point in the cell cycle and is used to treat cancer
combination chemotherapy combining several different chemotherapy agents simultaneously in order to enhance their effectiveness
primary chemotherapy the initial treatment of cancer with chemotherapy and curative intent
curative relating to the cure of a disease
adjuvant chemotherapy the treatment of residual cancer cells after removal or reduction of the tumor by surgery
neoadjuvant chemotherapy the treatment of cancer cells in an attempt to shrink the tumor so that it can be safely and completely removed with surgery
palliative chemotherapy a treatment given for cancer that is not curable in order to prolong life and improve quality of life by decreasing tumor size and reducing the symptoms caused by the tumor
bone marrow suppression a side effect of chemotherapy which includes decreased production of blood cells and increased risks of infections and bleeding
alopecia hair loss
mucositis mucosal damage to the lining of the mouth and intestinal tract
alkylating agents a drug class used to treat many types of cancer by binding to and damaging DNA during the cell division process, ultimately preventing cell replication
mutagenic the ability to cause changes in genetic material
peripheral neuropathy very painful damage to the nerves that affect the hands and feet
ototoxicity damage to the nerves that affect hearing
hemorrhagic cystitis damage and bleeding of the urinary bladder
antimetabolites a drug class that works in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle to treat cancer
hand-foot syndrome a condition in which patients experience painful sloughing and peeling of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
topoisomerases enzymes important in the process of DNA synthesis and cell replication
topoisomerase I inhibitors a drug class used to treat cancer by interfering with the DNA repair function of topoisomerases and disrupting the cell replication process
anthracyclines a large category of topoisomerase II inhibitors that inhibit topoisomerase activity by inserting themselves (or intercalating) into strands of DNA (see also intercalating agents)
topoisomerase II inhibitors a drug class used to treat cancer by interfering with the DNA repair function of topoisomerases and disrupting the cell replication process
intercalating agents a large category of topoisomerase II inhibitors that inhibit topoisomerase activity by inserting themselves (or intercalating) into strands of DNA (see also anthracyclines)
cardiac toxicity damage to the heart
extravasation severe tissue damage from infusion leaks under the skin during intravenous chemotherapy administration
vesicants drugs that cause extravasation injury
liposomal drugs that have been prepared in lipid formulations
microtubule "important components of cell function play a role in maintaining the shape and structure of cells and are critical elements in the process of cell division or mitosis"
antimicrotubule agents a drug class that works by interfering with the formation and function of microtubules, ultimately preventing cell growth and division; used to treat lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, as well as some types of leukemia and lymphoma
taxanes a drug class used to treat cancer that blocks cell growth by stopping cell division
vinca alkaloids a drug class used to treat cancer that blocks cell growth by stopping cell division
antiestrogens a drug class used to treat breast cancer by blocking the activity of estrogen
antiandrogens a drug class used to treat prostate cancer by blocking the activity of androgens
luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) a hormone that stimulates the production of both male and female reproductive hormones
targeted therapies a therapy directed at specific molecular entities that are required for tumor cell development, proliferation, and growth
monoclonal antibody an antibody that has been developed from a single type of immune cell that was cloned from a parent cell; they are directed at a specific marker or receptor on the surface of tumor cells, leading to destruction of those cells
signal transduction inhibitors a drug class that is used to treat cancer by preventing transmission of intracellular signals that stimulate cell proliferation
angiogenesis inhibitors a drug class that is used to treat cancer by preventing formation of blood vessels that allow for tumor growth and invasion of surrounding tissue
Class II Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) a workstation for handling, preparing, and administering oral or injectable hazardous drugs for product, personal, and environmental protection
Compounding Aseptic Containment Isolator (CACI) a workstation for handling, preparing, and administering oral or injectable hazardous drugs for product, personal, and environmental protection (see also glove box)
glove box a workstation for handling, preparing, and administering oral or injectable hazardous drugs for product, personal, and environmental protection (see also Compounding Aseptic Containment Isolator)
Closed System Transfer Device (CSTD) a vial-transfer system that allows no venting or exposure of hazardous substances to the environment
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) a national professional association that represents pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, long-term care facilities, home care, and other components of health care systems
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services
personal protective equipment (PPE) products that protect the handler from being exposed to hazardous drugs or their residue, and also serves as product protection by keeping contaminants from the skin of the handler away from the compound
aseptic technique a set of specific practices and procedures performed under carefully controlled conditions with the goal of minimizing contamination by pathogens
positive pressure excess pressure inside a vial
negative pressure vacuum inside a vial
accidental spill the unintentional spilling of hazardous drugs
spill kit a container of supplies used to clean up hazardous materials
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) a sheet that provides detailed information about the storage, handling, and cleanup of hazardous drug products
oral product compounding the mixing and combining of oral medications
intrathecally (IT) a delivery method via lumbar puncture to administer medication directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
SALAD (sound-alike, look-alike drugs) generic drug names that sound and look similar to one another and could possibly cause errors with product confusion
Created by: softcrylic