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solute a dissolved substance
solvent a liquid that dissolves a solute; usually water
water a clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid essential for life and the most widely used of all solvents
fluid any liquid of the body
intracellular fluid fluid contained inside the cellular membrane
extracellular fluid fluid located outside of the cells
interstitial space the space between the cells in tissues
plasma the liquid part of blood that contains water, protein, and various dissolved substances
homeostasis proper fluid balance in the body which is maintained by multiple systems that regulate water intake and output as well as distribute water into the various body compartments
electrolyte molecular compounds (usually minerals) that form ions when dissolved in water
cation a positively charged ion
anion a negatively charged ion
milliequivalents (mEq) unit of measure for electrolyte concentration
osmosis the movement of a solvent (usually water) through a membrane
sodium the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid
isotonicity a state of balanced concentration across cell membranes
potassium the primary cation in intracellular fluid
calcium a positively charged ion that is associated with bone formation, and it is also essential for muscle contraction and conducting impulses
magnesium an abundant intracellular cation
chloride an anion that transports carbon dioxide, forms hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and retains potassium
phosphate an anion that plays an important role in energy production within cells
hydrogen ion (H+) an ion created when an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom is lost, leaving a lone proton with a positive charge (H+)
acidity the state, quality, or degree of being acid; ability to donate protons in chemical reactions
alkalinity the state, quality, or degree of being alkaline; measure of the power to neutralise hydrogen ions; ability to accept protons in a chemical reaction
pH scale a way to measure acidic and basic properties of substances
acid–base pair buffer a bodily system that keeps the pH of blood between 7.35 and 7.45; includes a weak acid and a weak base
carbonic acid an acid constantly produced through normal metabolism and respiration that works with sodium bicarbonate to mitigate, or buffer, large changes in pH
sodium bicarbonate a basic compound constantly produced through normal metabolism and respiration that works with carbonic acid to mitigate, or buffer, large changes in pH
acid–base balance the body's balance between acidity and alkalinity
dehydration the excessive loss of bodily fluids, primarily water
edema an accumulation of excessive fluid in the interstitial tissue space
intravenous (IV) fluid products used to replace lost fluids and electrolytes due to dehydration as well as in parenteral nutrition solutions to supply essential trace minerals
tonicity the concentration of a solute (dissolved substance) in a solvent (liquid vehicle such as water) and how that concentration affects movement of water across membranes
osmolarity the concentration of all molecules, both those that move across membranes and those that do not, in a set volume of fluid
isotonic solution a fluid that has a concentration similar to blood plasma and replaces daily fluids and electrolyte loss and prevents dehydration
hypertonic solution a fluid that contains a higher concentration of solute than bodily fluids and is used when urgent sodium replenishment is needed as part of hydration
hypotonic solution a fluid that contains a lower concentration of solute than bodily fluids and treat dehydration by diluting the concentration within the bloodstream, which decreases osmolarity
crystalloid a solution that contains electrolytes that is used to replace lost fluid and treat dehydration
colloid a substance that contains proteins and other large molecules (such as fats) and works by increasing the osmolarity of blood plasma, which pulls fluid from interstitial spaces
electrolyte imbalance a condition which can be caused by loss or excessive production of the electrolyte itself, or from a relative reduction or excess of fluid
hyponatremia a condition of low sodium concentration in the body
hypernatremia a condition of elevated sodium concentration in the body
hypokalemia a condition of lower than the normal potassium concentration in the body
hyperkalemia a condition of increased potassium levels in the body
hypocalcemia a depletion in calcium levels in the body
hypercalcemia an excess of calcium in the blood
hypomagnesemia a depletion of magnesium in the body
hypochloremia a loss of chloride in the body
hyperchloremia an excess of chloride in the body
hypophosphatemia a drop in phosphate in the bloodstream
normal saline a salty solution used as a delivery vehicle for IV drug therapy
dextrose in water a gluclose solution used as a delivery vehicle for IV drug therapy
chelate bond chemically to form an insoluble precipitant
precipitate small white specks or lumps of material in a solution
acidosis a condition that occurs when extracellular fluid (i.e., blood), contains excess hydrogen ions (commonly from an abundance of carbon dioxide), which causes the pH to drop below the normal range
metabolic acidosis a condition that occurs when excess acid is produced, bicarbonate is lost (such as with diarrhea), or the kidneys do not excrete enough acid
respiratory acidosis a condition that results from slow breathing and retention of carbon dioxide in the blood
alkalosis a condition typically caused by a loss in hydrogen ions, producing a relative increase in bicarbonate, which increases blood pH
metabolic alkalosis a condition that occurs when excess acid is excreted via the kidneys (such as in overdiuresis) or acid is lost from the stomach (either from vomiting or gastric suction)
respiratory alkalosis a condition that occurs when breathing increases, and more carbon dioxide is exhaled and eliminated from the blood
ammonium chloride an acidic substance used for hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and works by prompting the kidneys to use ammonium in place of sodium in excretion processes
sodium bicarbonate a basic substance used as an antacid for heartburn and acid indigestion, a systemic alkalinizer for treating metabolic acidosis, and a urinary alkalinizer when treating hemolytic emergencies and drug overdoses
Created by: softcrylic



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