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renal system a bodily system responsible for clearing waste products from the blood while maintaining proper fluid and electrolyte balance; also called the urinary system
kidneys a pair of organs that filter blood for metabolic by-products and waste substances and also balance fluids and electrolytes in the body
ureter a duct that transports the waste products and excess fluid from the kidneys to the bladder
urinary bladder a sac located in the pelvic region that collects and holds urine until the fluid exits the body during urination
urethra a canal that discharges urine and in men, carries semen as well as urine
adrenal glands a pair of glands located on top of the kidneys
renal artery an artery that branches off from the abdominal aorta and brings blood into the kidneys
renal vein a vein that returns blood that has been filtered in the kidneys to the bloodstream
renal cortex the outer layer on the kidneys that is responsible for hormone production
renal medulla tissue found in middle, body of each kidney that is made up of many triangle-shaped sections that perform filtration
nephron the functional filtering unit of the kidney
afferent arteriole the entrance to the nephron where blood containing fluid and waste products enter
Bowman’s capsule a cup-shaped structure in the kidneys that filters fluid and waste products out of the blood by pressure
glomerulus a structure in the Bowman's capsule that consists of a capillary tightly folded
glomerular filtration the first step in urine production and the maintenance of fluid balance whereby large molecules are not filtered out, but most fluids and other smaller substances are
efferent arteriole an arteriole whereby blood leaves the Bowman’s capsule and renters the circulation
filtrate fluids and by-products filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus that continue on through the nephron
loop of Henle a part of the nephron where molecules selectively reenter the bloodstream via several mechanisms
filtration the process of substances moving across the membranes due to the force of pressure
reabsorption the process of absorbing substances from the nephron back into the bloodstream
secretion the process of elaborating or releasing a product
anuria the inability to produce urine
aldosterone a hormone that regulates the rate and volume of urine production
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) a hormone that regulates the rate and volume of urine production
internal urinary sphincter an involuntary muscle that keeps urine from flowing back into the ureters once it enters the bladder
external urinary sphincter a voluntary muscle that holds urine in the bladder before it exits the body
detrusor muscle a muscle in the bladder that contracts and pushes out urine
micturition the process of urination
urinary retention a condition that occurs when the kidneys make urine but the micturition process does not function properly and, consequently, urine accumulates in the bladder
incontinence the inability to control the external urinary sphincter, thus allowing urine to leak out of the bladder
nephrotoxicity direct damage to kidney tissue as a result of exposure to drugs or other chemicals
urinary tract infection (UTI) an infection that usually occurs in the bladder but can affect any part of the urinary system
cystitis a lower urinary tract infection involving the bladder
pyelonephritis an upper urinary tract infection affecting the kidneys
prostatitis a prostate infection in men
spastic bladder a malfunction of the detrusor muscles in the bladder, causing contraction and frequent urination
antispasmodics a drug class used to treat spastic bladder and urinary frequency that works by inhibiting acetylcholine in the autonomic nerves that control involuntary bladder contraction and emptying
benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) a chronic condition that happens in men as the prostate gland enlarges with age
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) a laboratory test that can screen for benign prostatic hyperplasia and more serious prostate problems
alpha blockers a class of drugs that is used for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia that work by inhibiting the alpha-1 receptors that relax smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder
5-alpha reductase inhibitors a drug class used for benign prostatic hyperplasia and male-pattern hair loss that work by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
acute renal failure a condition that occurs as a result of some type of damage, either physical or chemical, or lack of blood supply to the kidneys; results in altered urine production and filtering function; reversible in many cases
chronic kidney disease (CKD) a condition that involves progressive damage or results in the death of kidney tissue over time; eventually may require kidney transplant; not reversible
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) a laboratory test used to monitor the concentration of urea and nitrogen in the blood; indicator of kidney function
serum creatinine (SCr) a laboratory test used to monitor the concentration of creatinine in the blood; marker for kidney function
creatinine clearance (CrCl) a calculation that estimates f kidney function while taking into account such factors as age and gender
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) a calculation that estimates kidney function while taking into account such factors as age and gender
Cockcroft and Gault equation the most common formula to calculate creatinine clearance
dialysis an artificial method of filtering blood and correcting the electrolyte imbalances caused by renal failure
hemodialysis a method of dialysis that is accomplished by diverting blood flow through a machine that mechanically filters the blood and returns the blood to the body
peritoneal dialysis a method of dialysis that is accomplished by putting dialysate (a special fluid that draws toxins from the body into itself) into the abdominal cavity and leaving it there for a period of time then removing it
diuretics a drug class used either to improve urine output in renal failure or to reduce blood volume in high blood pressure
thiazide diuretics a drug class used to treat hypertension and works by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the distal tubule of the nephron
loop diuretics a drug class used to treat renal failure and works by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water in the ascending loop of Henle
potassium-sparing diuretics a drug class used to treat hypertension and works by blocking the exchange of potassium for sodium that takes place in the distal tubule
aldosterone antagonists a drug class used to treat hypertension and hyperaldosteronism (the overproduction of aldosterone) and works by inhibiting a hormone that promotes fluid retention
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors a drug class used to treat open-angle glaucoma and diuresis in congestive heart failure; works in the nephron by increasing excretion of bicarbonate ions, which carry sodium, potassium, and water into the urine
potassium supplement an agent that replenishes potassium levels in the body
osmotic diuretics a class of drugs used to treat severe trauma, cardiac operations, and elevated intracranial pressure; works by increasing the concentration of the filtrate which hinders reabsorption of water into the bloodstream from the renal tubules
saw palmetto an herbal treatment used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, such as frequent or painful urination, as well as urination hesitancy and urgency
cranberry juice a beverage used for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections
Created by: softcrylic



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