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Chapte_18

TermDefinition
reproductive system a bodily system responsible for procreation and fetal development
gonad specialized reproductive organs
gamete a kind of cell containing single strands of DNA
zygote a normal cell containing double-stranded DNA
ova the female gamete
ovaries the female gonad that produces ova
sperm the male gamete
testes the male gonad that produces sperm
fertilization the combining of the ovum and sperm
embryo the early stages of development and growth after fertilization
hypothalamic-pituitary axis a core feedback mechanism that controls endocrine function
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) a hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates sex hormone production from the ovaries and testes; supports growth and development of ovum and sperm
luteinizing hormone (LH) a hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates sex hormone production from the ovaries and testes; sitmulates release of ovum and sperm from the ovaries and testes
estrogen a sex hormone that is more prominent in women
progesterone a female sex hormone that supports endometrial lining growth and implanation of a fertilized egg
testosterone a sex hormone that is more prominent in men
androgen a sex hormone, including estrogen and testosterone, that is made by both males and females
aromatization the production of sex hormones through a process that occurs peripherally, in tissues other than the ovaries and testes
fallopian tube a tube that the ova travels through to get from the ovary to the uterus
uterus a female organ where a fertilized egg will embed and gradually develop into an embryo
cervix the lower, narrow part of the uterus; opening of uterus to the vagina
vagina a canal that leads from the cervix to outside of a woman's body
menstruation the sloughing of the endometrial tissue of the uterine lining; commonly referred to as a woman’s period or monthly cycle
menstrual cycle a process that prepares a woman's body for pregnancy each month which is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone
follicle an anatomical structure in which the primary oocyte develops
corpus luteum leftover follicle tissue that releases progesterone, which facilitates endometrial lining growth and supports embryo implantation
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) the pregnancy hormone released by an embryo
home pregnancy test a test that measures the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone in urine
epididymis a structure attached to the backside of the testes where the sperm mature
ductus deferens a tube connecting the testes to the urethra (see also vas deferens)
vas deferens a tube connecting the testes to the urethra (see also ductus deferens)
seminal vesicle an organ in the male reproductive system where semen is produced
prostate gland a gland at the base of the bladder in men that aids in the release of urine and secretes a fluid that is a component of semen
urethra a canal that discharges urine and in men, carries semen as well as urine
penis the external male sex organ used to copulate and ejaculate semen and discharge urine
semen a fluid that combines with sperm to help ejaculation through the urethra
Leydig cell a cell in the testes that produce testosterone
menopause the cessation of sex hormone production in females
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) a method of drug therapy that is used for menopause and works by replacing the progesterone and estrogen in the body
hypogonadism the underproduction of testosterone in males
andropause the decline in androgen (testosterone) production that occurs with age
anabolic steroids testosterone and related compounds
erectile dysfunction the failure to initiate or maintain an erection until ejaculation
phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors a drug class used to treat erectile dysfunction and works by relaxing smooth muscle in the corpus cavernosum of the penis, which eases blood flow into the area, facilitating erection
priapism an erection that lasts longer than four hours or is painful
contraception the prevention of pregnancy through artificial means (see also birth control)
birth control the prevention of pregnancy through artificial means (see also contraception)
rhythm method avoiding sexual intercourse during days in the menstrual cycle when conception is likely to occur
condom the male condom is placed over the erect penis before penetration into the vagina and a female condom is worn in the vagina and forms a physical barrier between penis and vagina
diaphragm a contraceptive made of rubber, latex, or silicone that is bordered by a rounded ring that fits over the cervix inside the vagina
cervical cap a contraceptive made of rubber, latex, or silicone that is bordered by a rounded ring that fits over the cervix inside the vagina
spermicide a substance that kills sperm cells on contact
oral contraceptive a drug class used to prevent pregnancy by manipulating hormones to prevent ovulation and changing cervical mucus texture
emergency contraception a drug taken within seventy-two hours of unprotected intercourse or the failure of another form of birth control, followed by a second dose twelve hours later and works by preventing ovulation, altering tubal transport of sperm and ovum,or inhibiting impl
transdermal contraceptive a contraceptive that uses a stick-on patch to deliver a combination of estrogen and progesterone in a steady supply through the skin and works by altering the menstrual cycle to prevent follicle maturation and ovulation and thickening cervical mucus
vaginal ring a combination birth control that contains synthetic estrogen and progesterone and is inserted into the vaginal where it releases hormones through the vaginal muscosa
sponge a contraceptive made of a latex porous material that is impregnated with a spermicide and forms a partial barrier over the cervix
intrauterine device (IUD) a intrauterine device with hormonal drug therapy that prevents pregnancy for long periods of time
infertility the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse; or after six months if the woman is over 35 years old
endometriosis a condition characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus, which is a common cause of infertility in women and has a negative effect on general health and well-being
assistive reproductive technology (ART) a complicated and specialized practice that matches drug therapy and other modes of treatment to the specific cause for infertility
ovulation induction the process of using hormones (such as FSH and LH) to stimulate the ovaries to produce and release multiple ova
artificial insemination the process of collecting semen containing sperm from a man and introducing it into a woman’s uterus during peak ovulation
in vitro fertilization (IVF) a procedure whereby multiple eggs are retrieved from a woman and artificially fertilized with sperm in a laboratory
home ovulation predictor kit a kit that measures either body temperature or hormonal fluctuation to predict when ovulation is about to occur
sexually transmitted disease (STD) infections that affect the reproductive system in males and females; they are transmitted through sexual contact
chlamydia a sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, an organism with characteristics of both bacteria and viruses that affects the reproductive system as well as the eyes and throat
gonorrhea a gram-negative bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae that attaches to mucosal tissue in the reproductive tract of males and females, rectum, eyes, and oropharyngeal (throat) area
syphilis a bacterial infection cause by Treponema pallidum which is contracted through contact with reproductive mucous membranes and/or genital skin lesions
vaginosis inflammation and infection of the vaginal mucosa that can be caused by bacteria or a yeast-like fungus
genital herpes a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
human papillomavirus (HPV) a sexually transmitted viral infection that causes genital warts and is connected to cervial cancer in women
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a deadly disease caused by the progression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is a retrovirus that attacks the DNA of T cells, destroying their ability to attack foreign cells and fight infection; transmitted through bodily fluids
soy a plant source of protein with estrogenic properties used for several conditions such as heat flashes associated with menopause (see also phytoestrogen)
phytoestrogen a plant source of protein with estrogenic properties used for several conditions such as heat flashes associated with menopause (see also soy)
black cohosh "a plant product with estrogenic effects used for menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes"
evening primrose oil a substance sometimes used to reduce symptoms of menopause or PMS
wild yam a phytoestrogen similar to soy with mild estrogenic effects; also called Mexican yam
Created by: softcrylic