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Chapter_16

TermDefinition
nutrition the science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods
nutrition status comparing what is considered “normal” body weight for a patient’s age and development with the patient’s actual body weight (ABW)
actual body weight (ABW) the weight of a person's body
ideal body weight (IBW) the weight for a given height that is associated with maximum longevity and health
body mass index (BMI) a process in which a person's body weight is divided by height to identify both under- and overnutrition
calories a measurement of energy intake
micronutrient a substance, such as vitamins and minerals, that plays a key role in many metabolic processes
vitamin a substance that your body needs to grow and develop normally
mineral a substance that is essential the nutrition of the body
recommended daily intake (RDI) nutritional recommendation daily intake for vitamins and essential trace elements given by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Institute of Medicine
international unit (IU) units of measurement developed for each substance based on its biological effect
obesity a body composition that contains significantly more fat than is considered normal or healthy
malnutrition a lack of adequate nutrient intake to supply basic metabolic needs
marasmus a chronic condition caused by inadequate caloric and protein intake over a prolonged time
cachexia a condition in which muscle and fat tissue visibly waste away
kwashiorkor a condition in which caloric intake is adequate but protein intake is deficient
fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) vitamins that accumulate in fatty tissue and can build up in the body over time
water-soluble vitamins vitamins that are easily excreted from the body in the urine
vitamin A a fat-soluble vitamin that helps promote and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucous membranes, skin, and good vision
retinoids vitamin A derivatives that are needed for vision, growth, bone formation, reproduction, immune system function, and skin health
thiamin (B1) an important coenzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism
riboflavin (B2) a coenzyme involved in tissue respiration and normal cell metabolism
niacin (B3) (nicotinic acid) an acid that is essential for reactions in the body that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a critical molecule in cellular energy production and cholesterol production
pantothenic acid (B5) a precursor of coenzyme A, which is required for proper metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
pyridoxine (B6) a vitamin that is converted in the body to the coenzymes responsible for amino acid metabolism
biotin (B7) a coenzyme involved in metabolism
folate (B9) "a vitamin that plays a major role in intracellular metabolism and the breakdown of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with cardiovascular disease (see also folic acid)"
folic acid "a vitamin that plays a major role in intracellular metabolism and the breakdown of homocysteine, an amino acid associated with cardiovascular disease; can greatly reduce the incidence of birth defectsin pregnant women (see also folate [B9])"
cyanocobalamin (B12) a coenzyme necessary for cell reproduction, normal growth, and red blood cell production
intrinsic factor a substance which is made in the stomach and aids in the absorption of B12
vitamin C (ascorbic acid) a vitamin best known for its role in immune system function and as an antioxidant
vitamin D a vitamin that is important for maintaining calcium and phosphate levels in the blood
ergocalciferol a form of vitamin D that is found in plants and yeasts
cholecalciferol a form of vitamin D that is made in the skin in response to sunlight
vitamin K (phytonadione) a coenzyme for the hepatic production of blood clotting factors
trace element essential minerals needed for normal physiologic functions
chromium a trace element that is part of a complex of molecules called glucose tolerance factor (GTF), which helps regulate glucose tolerance and insulin levels
copper a catalyst and coenzyme in a wide variety of chemical reactions in the body
iodine an element used in the body to make thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rates
iron an element found in hemoglobin inside red blood cells and myoglobin in muscles; it is a cofactor for neurotransmitter production and is a part of the functional groups of many important enzymes
manganese a trace element that is a cofactor in many metabolic and enzymatic reactions in the body
selenium a metallic trace element that is incorporated into amino acids
zinc a trace element that is a cofactor in many physiologic processes, including the synthesis of DNA and protein
enteral nutrition nutrition provided by feeding a patient through a tube placed into the gastrointestinal tract
nasogastric (NG) tube a tube inserted manually throught the nose into the stomach for enteral nutrition
gastrostomy (G) tube a tube surgically inserted into the stomach for enteral nutrition
jejunostomy (J) tube a tube surgically inserted into the jejunum, a section of the small intestines, for enteral nutrition
parenteral nutrition nutrition is provided by feeding a patient intravenously (see also total parenteral nutrition [TPN])
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) nutrition is provided by feeding a patient intravenously (see also total parenteral nutrition (see also parenteral nutrition)
morbid obesity a condition in which actual body weight is more than twice the amount of ideal body weight
satiety the sensation of feeling full and satisfied
centrally distributed fat adipose tissue that accumulates in the abdominal area, rather than in the hips, thighs, or buttocks
anorexiants (commonly known as appetite suppressants) a drug class that is used to treat obesity and works by stimulating dopamine and norepinephrine and preventing reuptake of serotonin; increased neurotransmitter levels signals give a sense of fullness and satisfaction
lipase inhibitor a drug class that is used to promote weight loss and works by binding to gastric and pancreatic lipase enzymes in the intestines, preventing the enzymes from breaking down fats into a form that can be absorbed
ephedra a natural supplement that is a central nervous system stimulant with anorexiant effects; currently banned from sale in the United States (see also ma huang)
ma huang a natural supplement that is a central nervous system stimulant with anorexiant effects; currently banned from sale in the United States (see also ephedra)
vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) a fat-soluble vitamin that is difficult to become deficient in, except in cases of very specific genetic or malabsorption disorders; an antioxidant that protects cells against the effects of free radicals; has been used for cardiovascular disease, cancer,
fiber a natural substance in fruits and vegetables that creates a sense of fullness and speeds gastrointestinal motility, limiting fat and calorie absorption; nutrient and drugs that enhance GI motitlity and help pass stool easier; resolve symptoms of hemorrhoi
Created by: softcrylic