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Eye & Ear

TermDefinition
sclera outer protective layer of the eye
white of the eye outer portion seen on the anterior of the eyeball
cornea transparent anterior part of the sclera, which is anterior to the aqueous humor and lies over the iris. It allows the light rays to enter the eye
choroid middle layer of the eye, interlaced w many blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye
iris pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil
pupil opening in the center of the iris
lens lies directly behind the pupil; function is to focus and bend light
retina innermost layer of the eye, which contains the vision receptors
aqueous humor watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye. provides nourishment to nearby structures and maintains shape in the anterior part of the eye
vitreous humor jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains its shape
meibomian glands oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids that help lubricate the eye
lacrimal glands and ducts produce and drain tears
optic nerve carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain
conjuctiva mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o, core/o, pupill/o pupil
corne/o, kerat/o cornea
dacry/o, lacrim/o tear, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o iris
ocul/o, ophthalm/o eye
opt/o vision
phac/o, phak/o lens
retin/o retina
scler/o sclero
cry/o cold
dipl/o two, double
is/o equal
phot/o light
ton/o tension, pressure
bi-, bin- two
-opia vision (condition)
-phobia abnormal fear of or aversion to specific thing
-plegia paralysis
aphakia condition of without a lens
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis drooping of the eyelid
conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva (aka pinkeye)
dacryocystitis inflammation of the tear sac
diplopia double vision
endophthalmitis inflammation within the eye
iridoplegia paralysis of the eye
iritis inflammation of the iris
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
keratomalacia softening of the cornea (usually associated w vitamin a deficiency)
leukocoria condition of white pupil
oculomycosis abnormal condition of the eye caused by a fungus
ophthalmalgia pain in the eye
ophthalmoplegia paralysis of the eye (muscle)
phacomalacia softening of the lens
photophobia abnormal fear of light
retinoplastoma tumor arising from a developing retinal cell (congenital, malignant tumor)
retinopathy (any noninflammatory) disease of the the retina)
sclerokeratitis inflammation of the sclera and the cornea
scleromalacia softening of the sclera
xerophthalmia condition of dry eye
amblyopia reduced vision in one eye caused by disuse or misuse associated with strabismus, unequal refractive errors, or otherwise impaired vision
astigmatism (Ast) blurred vision caused by irregular curvature of the cornea or lens
cataract clouding of the lens of the eye
chalazion obstruction of an oil gland of the eyelid (aka meibomian cyst)
detached retina separation of the retina from the choroid in back of the eye
glaucoma eye disorder characterized by increase of intraocular pressure (IOP). may progress to optic nerve damage and visual impairment or loss
hyperopia farsightedness
macular degeneration progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision
myopia nearsightedness
nyctalopia poor vision at night or in faint light (aka night blindness)
nystagmus involuntary, jerking movements of the eye
pinguecula yellowish mass of conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to UV light, dry climates, and dust. if spreads onto cornea it is called pterygium
presbyopia impaired vision as a result of aging.
pterygium thin tissue growing into the cornea from the conjunctiva, usually caused from sun exposure
retinitis pigmentosa hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
strabismus condition in which the eyes look in different directions, caused by dysfunction of the external eye muscles (cross-eyed)
sty infection of an oil gland of the eyelid (aka stye, hordeolum)
blepharoplasty surgical repair of the eyelid
cryoretinopexy surgical fixation of the retina using extreme cold
dacryocystorhinostomy creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and the nose
dacryocystotomy incision of the tear sac
iridectomy excision (of part) of the iris
iridotomy incision of the iris
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea
sclerotomy incision of the sclera
enucleation surgical removal of the eyeball
LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia
phacoemulsification (PHACO) method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) procedure to treat nearsightedness in which an Excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea
retinal photocoagulation intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels, to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions, or to bond the retina to the back of the eye
scleral buckling procedure to repair a detached retina. a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in the sclera. exoplant is used to hold and buckle the sclera
trabeculectomy surgical creation of an opening that allows aqueous humor to drain out of the eye to underneath the conjunctiva where it is absorbed. used to treat glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure
vitrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor (used to treat diabetic retinopathy)
flourescein angiography radiographic imaging of blood vessels(of the eye with fourescing dye)
keratometer instrument used to measure the cornea (used for fitting contact lenses)
ophthalmoscope instrument used for visual exam of the interior of the eye
ophthalmoscopy visual exam of the eye
optometry measurement of vision
pupillometer instrument used to measure the diameter of the pupil
pupilloscope instrument used for the visual exam of the pupil
retinoscopy visual exam of the retina
tonometer instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma)
tonometry measurement of pressure (within the eye)
anisocoria condition of absence of equal pupil size
binocular pertaining to two or both eyes
corneal pertaining to the cornea
intraocular pertaining to within the eye
isocoria condition of equal pupil size
lacrimal pertaining to tears
nasolacrimal pertaining to the nose and tear ducts
ophthalmic pertaining to the eye
ophthalmologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the eye
ophthalmology (Ophth) study of the eye
ophthalmopathy (any) disease of the eye
optic pertaining to vision
pseudophakia condition of false lens (placement of intraocular lens during surgery to treat cataracts)
pupillary pertaining to the pupil
retinal pertaining to the retina
emmetropia (Em) normal refractive condition of the eye
intraocular lens artificial lens implanted within the eye during cataract surgery
miotic agent that constricts the pupil
mydriatic agent that dilates the pupil
optician specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses (but cannot prescribe)
optometrist health professional who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises
visual acuity (VA) sharpness of vision for either distance or near
external ear auricle (pinna) external structure located on both sides of the head. the auricle directs sound waves into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal (meatus) short tube that ends at the tympanic membrane. inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that secrete earwax (cerumen)
middle ear tympanic membrane (eardrum) semitransparent membrane that separates the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity. tympanic membrane transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles.
eustachian tube connects the middle ear and the pharynx. equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
ossicles bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations. ossicles are composed of the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). the stapes connects to the oval window, which transmits the sound vibrations to the cochlea of the inner ear
labyrinth (inner ear) bony space within the temporal bone of the skull. contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule.
cochlea snail-shaped and contains the organ of hearing. cochlea connects to the oval window in the middle ear
semicircular canals and vestibule contains receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its sense of balance
mastoid bone and cells located in the skull bone behind the external auditory canal
audi/o hearing
aur/o, aur/i, ot/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
labyrinth/o labyrinth (inner ear)
mastoid/o mastoid bone
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum), middle ear
vestibul/o vestibule
labyrinthitis inflammation of the labyrinth (inner ear) (aka vestibular neuritis)
mastoiditis inflammation of the mastoid bone
myringitis inflammation of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
otagia pain in the ear
otomastoiditis inflammation of the ear and mastoid bone
otomycosis abnormal condition of fungus in the ear
otopyorrhea discharge of pus from the ear
otorrhea discharge from the ear (may be serous, bloody, consisting of pus, or containing cerebrospinal fluid)
otosclerosis hardening of the ear (stapes) (caused by irregular bone development and resulting in hearing loss)
acoustic neuroma benign tumor within the internal auditory canal growing from the acoustic nerve
ceruminoma tumor of a gland that secretes earwax (cerumen)
cholesteatoma cystlike mass composed of epithelial cells and cholesterol occurring in the middle ear, associated w chronic otitis media
Meniere disease chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by a sensation of spinning motion (vertigo), ringing in the ear (tinnitus), aural fullness, and fluctuating hearing loss, related to a change in volume or composition of fluid within the labyrinth
otitis externa inflammation of the outer ear
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear (aka tympanitis)
presbycusis hearing impairment occurring with age
tinnitus ringing in the ears
vertigo sense that either one's own body (subjective vertigo) or the environment (objective vertigo) is revolving. may indicate inner ear disease
cochlear implants surgically inserted electronic device that converts sound into electrical impulses, the impulses stimulate the auditory nerve to carry the signal to the brain which learns to interpret the signal as sound. damaged part of the ear is bypassed
labyrinthectomy excision of the labyrinth
mastoidectomy excision of the mastoid bone
mastoidotomy incision into the mastoid bone
myringoplasty surgical repair of the tympanic membrane
myrinotomy incision into the tympanic membrane (performed to release pus or fluid and relieve pressure in the middle ear) (aka tympanocentesis)
stapedectomy excision of the stapes (performed to restore hearing in cases of otosclerosis, replaced by prosthesis)
tympanoplasty surgical repair of the middle ear including the tympanic membrane and the ossicles)
audiogram (graphic) recording of hearing
audiometer instrument used to measure hearing
audiometry measurement of hearing
electrocochleography process of recording the electrical activity in the cochlea
otoscope instrument used in the visual exam of the ear
otoscopy visual exam of the ear
tympanometer instrument used to measure the middle ear (function)
tympanometry measurement (of movement) of the tympanic membrane
audiologist one who studies and specializes in hearing
audiology the study of hearing
aural pertaining to the ear
cochlear pertaining to the cochlea
otologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear
otology study of the ear
otorhinolaryngologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear, nose, and throat (aka otolaryngologist)
vestibulocochlear pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea
vestibular pertaining to the vestibule
Created by: nallain