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Brain Injury

neuro rehab

Where does focal injury occur? under the site of impact
Where does primary damage occur with a focal brain injury? anterior, inferior, temporal, and prefrontal lobes
What is damaged acutely with a focal brain injury? neuronal, glial and vascular components
How is diffuse axonal injury caused? caused by acceleration/deceleration and rotational forces
What structures can be damaged with diffuse axonal injury? cortical white matter, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, brain stem, cerebellum
What occurs with a hypoxic-ischemic injury: HII and what are the causes? decreased oxygen to portion of brain; can be caused by hypotension, anoxia, or vascular damage
How is increased intracranial pressure classified and what is the normal ICP? by site; 4-15 mm
What are therapies for ICP? sedating meds, head elevation greater than 30 degrees, hypothermia, surgical decompression
What are the causes of damage to brain structures? focal injury, diffuse axonal injury, hypoxic-ischemic injury, increased intracranial pressure
What are some cascade events that can occur with TBI? glial swelling, changes in cell permeability, alter BBB, cell damage = release glutamate = neurotoxicity, increase apoptosis, influx calcium, free radical release, cytokines
sequellae (define) A secondary consequence, used typically in medical terminology An unexpected result or complication
sequellae of TBI changes in tone (decorticate, decerebrate, hypertonus), sensory and motor changes, canges in cognition and altered consciousness
What are the three levels of awareness? minimally conscious state, vegetative state, persistent vegetative state
minimally conscious state severely altered conscious w/ min but definate evidence of self and environ; purposeful cognitive-mediated behavior.... NOT reflexive
vegetative state decreased level of awareness; pt has eye opening/wake cycles; unable to follow commands/speak
persistent vegetative state no meaningful motor/cognitive function/awareness; symptoms persist for more than a year w/ TBI; more than 3 mo for anoxic brain injury
3 examples of changes in cognition orientation and memory deficits; declarative and procedural memory; attention
What are some therapeutic interventions for brain injury? use of neuroprotective agents, use of mild anti-inflammatories (various results), mild hypothermia, cell transplantation
Created by: wrenlette