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Digestive System

TermDefinition
mouth opening through which food passes into the body: breaks food into small particles by mastication and mixing with saliva
tongue consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech
palate separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
soft palate posterior portion, not supported by bone
hard palate anterior portion, supported by bone
uvula soft v-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat
pharynx, throat performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
esophagus 10-in tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to the stomach. Peristalsis (involuntary wavelike movements that propel food along the digestive tract) begin here
stomach J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
cardia area around the opening of the esophagus
fundus proximal domed portion of the stomach
body central portion of the stomach, distal to the fundus
antrum distal portion of the stomach
pylorus portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
small intestine 20-ft tube extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine. Digestion is completed here. Absorption, the passage of nutrients from sm intestine to bloodstream, through villi (fingerlike projections that line the walls of the sm intestine)
duodenum first 10-12 inches of the small intestine
jejunum second portion of the small intestine, ~8 ft
ileum third portion of the small intestine, ~11 ft, connects with large intestine
large intestine ~ 5 ft long tube that extends from the ileum to the anus. Absorption of water and trasit of solid waste take place here
cecum blind u-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon next portion of the large intestine. divided into 4 parts-ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
rectum distal portion of the large intestine, ~ 8-10 in. long, extending from sigmoid colon to anus
anus sphincter muscle at the end of the digestive tract. provides for elimination of solid waste products
salivary glands produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
liver produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats
bile ducts passageways that carry bile-hepatic duct for bile from the liver, cystic duct carries bile to and from the gallbladder. they join to form the common bile duct, conveys bile to the duodenum. collectively called biliary tract
gallbladder small, saclike structure that stores bile produced by the liver
pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carb metabolism
peritoneum serous saclike lining of the adominal and pelvic cavities
appendix small pouch, no known function in digestion, attached to cecum
abdomen portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
an/o anus
antr/o antrum
cec/o cecum
col/o, colon/o colon (large intestine)
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestine (small)
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
or/o, stomat/o mouth
proct/o, rect/o rectum
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o abdomen, abdominal cavity
append/o, appendic/o appendix
cheil/o lip
cholangi/o bile duct
chol/e gall, bile
choledoch/o common bile duct
diverticul/o diverticulum, blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ
gingiv/o gum
gloss/o, lingu/o tongue
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
polyp/o polyp, small growth
pylor/o pylorus, pyloric sphincter
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
steat/o fat
uvul/o uvula
hemi- half
-pepsia digestion
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
cholangioma tumor of the bile duct
cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
choledocholithiasis condition of stones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis condition of gallstones
colitis inflammation of the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticulum
diverticulosis abnormal condition of having diverticula
esophagitis inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and intestines
gastroenterocolitis inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma tumor of the liver
palatitis inflammation of the palate
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
polyposis abnormal condition of polpys
proctopsis prolapse of the rectum
rectocele protrusion of the rectum
sialolith stone in the salivary gland
steatohepatitis inflammation of the liver associated with excess fat
uvulitis inflammation of the uvula
adhesion abnormal growing together of two peritoneal surfaces that normally are separated. treatment is called adhesiolysis or adhesiotomy
celiac disease malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune reaction to gluten, which may damage the lining of the small intestine that is responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream
cirrhosis chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue, caused by alcoholism and certain hepatitis
Crohn disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon...cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of mucus barrier of the esophagus
hemochromatosis iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue
hemorrhoids swollen or distended veins in the rectal area, may be internal or external, can be a source of rectal bleeding and pain
ileus non-mechanical obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
intussusception telescoping of a segment of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and/or constipation, usually associated with abdominal pain
obesity excess of body fat
peptic ulcer erosion of the mucus membrane of the stomach or duodenum associated with increased secretion of acid from the stomach, bacterial infection, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
polyp tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane, usually benign. common in nose, throat, and intestine
ulcerative colitis inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers that produces bloody diarrhea. proctocolectomy w permanent ileostomy is standard treatment
volvulus twisting or kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction
abdominocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the abdominal cavity
abdominoplasty surgical repair of the abdomen
anoplasty surgical repair of the anus
antrectomy excision of the antrum
appendectomy excision of the appendix
celiotomy incision into the abdominal cavity
cheilorrhaphy suturing of the lip
cholecysterectomy excision of the gall bladder
choledocholithotomy incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
colectomy excision of the colon
colostomy creation of an artificial opening into the colon
diverticulectomy excision of a diverticulum
enterorrhaphy suturing of the intestine
esophagegastroplasty surgical repair of the esophagus and stomach
gastrectomy excision of the stomach (or part of)
gastrojejunostomy creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jujenum
gastroplasty surgical repair of the stomach
gastrostomy creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
gingivectomy surgical removal of a gum (tissue)
glossorrhaphy suturing of the tongue
hemicolectomy excision of half of the colon
hernorrhaphy suturing of a hernia
ileostomy creation of an artificial opening into the ileum
laparotomy incision into the abdominal wall
palatoplasty surgical repair of the palate
polypectomy excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy incision into the pyloric muscle (to correct pyloric stenosis
pyloroplasty surgical repair of the pylorus
uvulectomy excision of the uvula
uvulopalatopharyngolasty surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx (to correct obstructive sleep apnea
abdominoperineal resection (A&P resection) removal of the distal colon and rectum through both the abdomen and perineal approaches-to treat colorectal cancer and inflammatory diseases of the lower large intestine
anastomosis (pl. anastomoses) connection created y surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments
bariatric surgery surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity
hemorrhoidectomy excision of hemorrhoids
vagotomy cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced
cholangiogram radiographic image of bile ducts
cholangiography radiographic imaging of the bile ducts
CT colonography radiographic imaging of the colon using CT scanner
esophagogram radiographic image of the esophagus
colonoscope instrument used for visual exam of the colon
colonoscopy visual exam of the colon
endoscope instrument used for visual exam within (hollow organ)
endoscopy visual exam within (hollow organ)
esophagogastroduodenoscopy visual exam of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
esophagoscopy visual exam of the esophagus
gastroscope instrument used for visual exam of the stomach
gastroscopy visual exam of the stomach
laparoscope instrument used for visual exam of the abdominal caity
laparoscopy visual exam of the abdominal cavity
proctoscope instrument used for visual exam of rectum
proctoscopy visual exam of the rectum
sigmoidoscopy visual exam of the sigmoid colon
abdominal sonography ultrasound test of the abdominal cavity
barium enema series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after barium is administered rectally
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) endoscopic procedure involving radiographic imaging of the biliary ducts and pancreatic ducts w contrast media and fluoroscopy...used to evaluate and diagnose obstructions, strictures, stone diseases, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer
upper GI (gastrointestinal) series series of radiographic images taken of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after barium administered orally
endoscopic ulstrasound procedure using and endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall...used to detect tumors and cystic growths
fecal occult blood test (FOBT) test to detect occult blood in feces...used to screen for colon cancer or polyps
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies test blood test to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria. bacteria can be found in the lining of the stomach and can cause peptic ulcers
ascites abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
diarrhea frequent discharge of liquid stool
dysentery disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine associated w diarrhea and abdominal pain
emesis expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth (aka vomiting)
feces waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum (aka stool, fecal matter)
flatus gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus
gastric lavage washing out of the stomach
gavage process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
hematemesis vomiting of blood
hematochezia passage of bloody feces
malabsorption impaired digestion or intestinal absorption of nutrients
melena black, tarry stool that contains digested blood..usually a result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
nausea urge to vomit
palpate to examine by hand; to feel
peristalsis involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
reflux abnormal backward flow. in esophageal reflux, the stomach contents flow back into the esophagus
stoma surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body
vomiting expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth (aka emesis)
Created by: nallain