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Response of missed pre-assessment questions

A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response is a(n) ____________. (definition) unconditioned stimulus (definition)
A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus is a(n) ____________. (definition) unconditioned response (definition)
Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response is a(n) _____________. (definition) neutral stimuli (definition)
A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus is a(n) __________. (definition) conditioned stimulus (definition)
The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response is a(n) ___________. (definition) classical conditioning (definition)
The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior is a(n) _________. (definition) operant conditioning (definition)
An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning is a(n) ___________. Skinner box
What is it called when a teacher reinforces a student who raises her hand to speak? operant conditioning
Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors. (definition) consequences (definition)
A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior. (definition) reinforcer (definition)
Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need. (definition) primary reinforcer (definition)
A consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer. (definition) secondary reinforcer (definition)
Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior. (definition) positive reinforcer (definition)
Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior. (definition) negative reinforcer (definition)
Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities. (definition) Premack Principle (definition)
What is it called when a teacher says "If you get an A on tomorrow's test, you won't have to do homework the rest of the week"? negative reinforcement
Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward. (definition) intrinsic reinforcers (definition)
Praise or reward given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise. (definition) extrinsic reinforcers (definition)
Examples of 10 reinforcements: 1. Self-reinforcement 2. Praise 3. Attention 4. Grades and recognition 5. Call home 6. Home-based reinforcement 7. Privileges 8. Activity reinforcers 9. Tangible reinforcers 10. Food
If an unpleasant consequence does not reduce the frequency of the behavior, it may not be a(n) ____________. punisher
Unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior. (definition) punishment (definition)
An unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape. (definition) aversive stimulus (definition)
An aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again. (definition) presentation punishment (definition)
Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur. (definition) removal punishment (definition)
Procedure of charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges. (definition) response cost (definition)
Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced. (definition) time out (definition)
The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal. (definition) shaping (definition)
The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn. (definition) extinction (definition)
The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction. (definition) extinction burst (definition)
The frequency and predictability of reinforcement. (definition) schedule of reinforcement (definition)
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors. (definition) fixed-ratio (FR) schedule (definition)
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors. (definition) variable-ratio (VR) schedule (definition)
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time. (definition) fixed-interval (FI) schedule (definition)
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time. (definition) variable-interval (VI) schedule (definition)
Continuation (of behavior). (definition) maintenance (definition)
When a teacher holds her hand up to get students' attention it is cueing, a(n) _____________ that informs students which behaviors will be reinforced. antecedent stimulus
Events that precede behaviors. (definition) antecedent stimulus (definition)
Signals as to which behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished. (definition) cues (definition)
Perception of and response to differences in stimuli. (definition) discrimination (definition)
Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another. (definition) generalization (definition)
Imitation of others' behavior. (definition) modeling (definition)
Learning by observation and imitation of others. (definition) observational learning (definition)
What are the 4 phases of observational learning? 1. Attentional phase 2. Retention phase 3. Reproduction 4. Motivational phase
What does vicarious learning mean? learning from observing or hearing about another's experiences
Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior. (definition) vicarious learning (definition)
Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior. (definition) self-regulation (definition)
Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction. (definition) cognitive behavior modification
Behavioral learning theories apply best to ___________ (rather than thinking for example). observable behavior
Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior. (definition) behavioral learning theories (definition)
Learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action. (definition) social learning theories (definition)
Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes. (definition) cognitive learning theories (definition)
A change in an individual that results from experience. (definition) learning (definition)
Environmental conditions that activate the senses. (definition) stimuli stimulus (singular) (definition)
ringing bell was conditioned stimulus used to get dogs to salivate without the presence of meat. Pavlov's work
Classical conditioning (who) Pavlov (who)
Operant behaviors (who) B.F. Skinner (who)
Premack Priciple also called ____________ "Grandma's Rule"
Sit and Watch (who) White and Bailey (who)
Social learning theory observational learning (who) Albert Bandura (who)
self-regulated learning (who) Meichenbaum (who)
Orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime. (definition) development (definition)
Theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood. (definition) continuous theories of development (definition)
Theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors. (definition) discontinuous theories of development (definition)
Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated. (definition) cognitive development (definition)
Mental patterns that guide behavior. (definition) schemes (definition)
The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation. (definition) adaptation (definition)
Understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes. (definition) assimilation (definition)
Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations. (definition) accommodation (definition)
An approach to learning that emphasizes the active role that learners play in building their own understandings. constructivist approach
The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences. (definition) equilibration (definition)
View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality. (definition) constructivism (definition)
Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills. (definition) sensorimotor stage (definition)
Inborn automatic responses to stimuli (e.g., eye blinking in response to bright light). (definition) reflexes (definition)
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Formation of concept of "object permanence" and gradual progression from reflexive behavior to goal-directed behavior.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: Preoperational 2 to 7 years Development of the ability to use symbols to represent objects in the world. Thinking remains egocentric and centered.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: concrete operational 7 to 11 years Improvement in ability to think logically. New abilities include the use of operations that are reversible. Thinking is decentered, and problem solving is less restricted by egocentrism. Abstract thinking is not possible.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development: Formal operational 11 years to adulthood Abstract and purely symbolic thinking possible. Problems can be solved through the use of systematic experimentation.
Understanding that an object exists even if it is out of sight. (definition) object permanence (definition)
Stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind. (definition) preoperational stage (definition)
The concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length). (definition) conservation (definition)
Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation. (definition) centration (definition)
The ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point. (definition) reversibility (definition)
Believing that everyone views the world as you do. (definition) egocentric (definition)
Stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations. (definition) concrete operational stage (definition)
The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information. (definition) inferred reality (definition)
Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume. (definition) seriation (definition)
A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects. (definition) transitivity (definition)
Stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason logically. (definition) formal operational stage (definition)
Instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather to their age alone). (definition) developmentally appropriate education (definition)
Symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems. (definition) sign systems (definition)
The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others. (definition) self-regulation (definition)
Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech. (definition) private speech (definition)
Level of development immediately above a person's present level. (definition) zone of proximal development
Support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking down the problem into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner. (definition) scaffolding (definition)
Lev Vygotsky's work The zone of proximal development is the level of development just above where a student is presently functioning.
Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school. (definition) emergent literacy
developmental psychologist who explored both why and how mental abilities change over time. Believed that development depends on the child's manipulation of and active interaction with the environment. (4 distinct stages of cognitive development) (who) Piaget (who)
psychologist - 2 key ideas: 1. proposed that intellectual development can be understood only in terms of the historical and cultural contexts children experienc. 2 beleived that development depends on the sign systems that individuals grow up with. (who) Vygotsky (who)
Cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind. (definition) information-processing theory (definition)
Component of the memory system in which information is received and held for very short periods of time. (definition) sensory register (definition)
A person's interpretation of stimuli. (definition) perception (definition)
Active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others. (definition) attention (definition)
The component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds. (definition) short-term or working memory (definition)
Mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention. (definition) rehearsal (definition)
organizing material into familiar patterns can help students with what? memory
The components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time. (definition) long-term memory (definition)
A part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experiences. (definition) episodic memory (definition)
A part of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge. (definition) semantic memory (definition)
A part of long-term memory that stores information about how to do things. (definition) procedural memory (definition)
important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory. (definition) flashbulb memory (definition)
Mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information.(definition) schemata (definition) schema is the singular term
Explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amount of mental processing it receives. (definition) levels-of-processing theory (definition)
Theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways. (definition) dual code theory of memory (definition)
Inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory. (definition) interference (definition)
Decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information. (definition) retroactive inhibition (definition)
Decreased ability to learn new information, caused by interference from existing knowledge. (definition) proactive inhibition (definition)
Increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information. (definition) proactive facilitation (definition)
Increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information. (definition) retroactive facilitation (definition)
The tendency for items at the beginning of a list to be recalled more easily than other items. (definition) primacy effect (definition)
The tendency for items at the end of a list to be recalled more easily than other items. (definition) recency effect (definition)
A level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort. (definition) automaticity (definition)
Technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time. (definition) massed practice (definition)
Technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time. (definition) distributed practice (definition)
A learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks. (definition) enactment (definition)
Learning of words (or facts expressed in words). (definition) verbal learning (definition)
learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled. (definition) paired-associate learning (definition)
Memorization of a series of items in a particular order. (definition) serial learning (definition)
Learning of a list of items in any order. (definition) free-recall learning (definition)
Mental visualization of images to improve memory. (definition) imagery (definition)
Devices or strategies for aiding the memory. (definition) mnemonics (definition)
A strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items. (definition) keyword method (definition)
A strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations. (definition) loci method (definition)
A strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of fats to a familiar set of words or numbers. (definition) pegword method (definition)
Strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase. (definition) initial-letter strategies (definition)
Memorization of facts or associations that might be essentially arbitrary. (definition) rote learning (definition)
Mental processing of new information that relates to previously learned knowledge. (definition) meaningful learning (definition)
Learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications. (definition) inert knowledge (definition)
Theory stating that information is stored in long-term memory in schemata(networks of connected facts and concepts), which provide a structure for making sense of new information. (definition) schema theory (definition)
Knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn ("thinking about thinking"). (definition) metacognition (definition)
Methods for learning, studying, or solving problems. (definition) metacognitive skills (definition)
Learning strategies that call on students to ask themselves who, what, where, and how questions as they read material. (definition) self-questioning strategies (definition)
A study strategy that requires decisions about what to write. (definition) note-taking (definition)
Writing brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read. (definition) summarizing (definition)
Representing the main points of material in hierarchical format. (definition) outlining (definition)
Diagramming main ideas and the connections between them. (definition) concept mapping (definition)
A study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material. (definition) PQ4R method (definition)
Activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation. (definition) advance organizers (definition)
Images, concepts, or narratives that compare new material to information students already understand. (definition) analogies (definition)
The process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind. (definition) elaboration (definition)
A special program that is the subject of an experiment. (definition) treatment (definition)
Something that can have more than one value. (definition) variable (definition)
Procedure used to test the effect of a treatment. (definition) experiment (definition)
Selection by chance into different treatment groups; intended to ensure equivalence of the groups. (definition) random assignment (definition)
Experiment in which conditions are highly controlled. (definition) laboratory experiment (definition)
The degree to which an experiment's results can be attributed to the treatment in question rather than other factors. (definition) internal validity (definition)
Experiment conducted under realistic conditions in which individuals are assigned by chance to receive different practical treatments or programs. (definition) randomized field experiment (definition)
Group that receives treatment during an experiment. (definition) experimental group (definition)
Group that receives no special treatment during an experiment. (definition) control group (definition)
Degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations. (definition) external validity (definition)
Experiment that studies a treatment's effect on one person or one group by contrasting behavior before, during,m and after application of the treatment. (definition) single-case experiment (definition)
Research into the relationships between variables as they naturally occur. (definition) correlational study (definition)
Relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to high levels of another. (definition) positive correlation (definition)
Relationship in which high levels of one variable correspond to low levels of another. (definition) negative correlation (definition)
Variables for which there is no relationship between levels of one compared to another. (definition) uncorrelated variables (definition)
Research study aimed at identifying and gathering detailed information about a topic of interest. (definition) descriptive research (definition)
Research carried out by educators in their own classrooms or schools. (definition) action research (definition)
Policies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond. (definition) response to intervention (definition)
Tier 1: PREVENTION whole class teaching whole class reforms improve classroom management 80%
Tier 2: IMMEDIATE INTERVENTION 1-1 or small group tutoring additional time (after school, summer school, etc.) provide behavioral supports 15%
Tier 3: INTENSIVE INTERVENTION 1-1 or small group tutoring additional time(after school, etc.) provide intensive behavioral supports 5% of struggling students
Arrangement whereby students who have disabilities or are at risk receive all their instruction in a general education setting; support services are brought to the student. (definition) full inclusion (definition)
General aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with abstractions and to solve problems. (definition) intelligence (definition)
An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100. (definition) intelligence quotient (IQ) (definition)
In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's nin separate abilities: logical/mathematical, linguistic, musical, naturalist, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and existential. (definition) multiple intelligences (definition)
Interaction of individual differences in learning with particular teaching methods. (definition) aptitude-treatment interaction (definition)
A model of effective instruction that focuses on elements teachers can directly control: quality, appropriateness, incentive, and time. (definition) QAIT model (definition)
Curriculum sequences to which students of specified achievement or ability level are assigned. (definition) tracks (definition)
The practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level. (definition) between-class ability grouping (definition)
A system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into two or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects. (definition) within-class ability grouping (definition)
A focus on having students in mixed-ability groups and holding them to high standards but providing may ways for students to reach those standards. (definition) untracking (definition)
A method of ability grouping in which students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels. (definition) regrouping (definition)
A regrouping method in which students are grouped across grade lines for reading instruction. (definition) Joplin Plan (definition)
Programs, generally at the primary level, that combine children of different ages in the same class. Also called cross-age grouping programs. (definition) nongraded programs (definition)
An approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular classes. (definition) differentiated instruction (definition)
The desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success depends on personal effort and abilities. (definition) achievement motivation (definition)
The goals of students who are motivated primarily by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvement. Also called mastery goals. (definition) learning goals (definition)
The goals of students who are motivated primarily by a desire to gain recognition from others and to earn good grades. (definition) performance goals (definition)
The expectation, based on experience, that one's actions will ultimately lead to failure. (definition) learned helplessness (definition)
The influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior. (definition) motivation (definition)
Basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being as identified by Maslow. (definition) deficiency needs (definition)
Needs for knowing, appreciating, and understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met. (definition) growth needs (definition)
A person's ability to develop his or her full potential. (definition) self-actualization (definition)
A theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures. (definition) attribution theory (definition)
A personality trait that determines whether people attribute responsibility for their own failure or success to internal or external factors. (definition) locus of control (definition)
A theory of motivation based on the belief that people's efforts to achieve depend on their expectations of reward. (definition) expectancy theory (definition)
A theory that relates the probability and the incentive value of success to motivation. (definition) expectancy-valence model (definition)
Created by: fuji
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