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Earth and Sky

What are the layers of earth's interior? inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust
describe the core densest and hottest layer, made of iron and nickel, outer-liquid, inner-solid
describe the mantle most of earth's mass/volume, denser and hotter than crust, uppermost lithosphere-similar to crust, asthenosphere-thick, plastic
describe the crust outermost layer, thinnest, coldest, least dense
what is the difference between the crust and the lithosphere? the lithosphere is not considered a layer, but a zone within two layers
describe the principle of superposition the lowest is the oldest
describe the principle of original horizonality layers are deposited horizontally
describe the law of crosscutting relationships the cutter is younger than the cuttee
describe inclusions inclusions are older than the formation they are in
describe the principle of lateral continuity layers extend laterally in all directions
describe the principle of faunal succession using fossils to identify rock age
how is relative dating different from absolute dating? relative dating is in relation to something else, absolute dating is exact
describe index fossils fossil used for relative dating
describe radiometric dating using decay rates to determine exact age
what characteristics does a fossil have to have to be a useful indew fossil? short lifespan, embedded in rock, abundance, small, easily recognizable
what factors does a geologist have to consider when choosing what type of radiometric dating method to use on a sample? contamintation, gain or loss of isotopes
what are three reasons why a particular radiometric dating method may not work for a particular sample? no radioactive isotopes, contamination, or metamorphosis
define fossil preserved remains of an animal or plant
define the principle of uniformitarianism natural laws that we see today have always been that way
define unconformity a surface separating two rockmasses of different ages
what is the fossil record? the preserved remains of traces of plants and animals from the past
what is the rock record? only the rocks that currently exist
what are the limitations of the fossil record? hard parts are over represented
what are the four main spans of geologic time? Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
what happened during Precambrian time? single-celled organisms
what happened during Paleozoic time? plants and intertebrates, mass extinction
what happened during Mesozoic time? dinosaurs, mass extinction
what happened during Cenozoic time human evolution
what is a mass extinction a widespread death on earth
what are the five characteristics that all minerals have? solid, crystalline structure, natural, inorganic
what are the two main types of minerals? silicate and nonsilicate
what are the three main rock types? igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
how do igneous rocks form? cooling of magma
how do sedimentary rocks form? weathering/erosion, compacting
how do metamorphic rocks form? heat and pressure
what is the rock cycle? cycle of processes undergone by rocks
compare and contrast weathering and erosion weathering is breaking down of rocks, erosion is transportation of sediments
what is physical weathering? caused by physical interactions like sand or water
what is chemical weathering? caused by a chemical reaction
what are the main agents of erosion? water, wind, waves, ice,
how do s and p waves help us understand the interior layers of earth? seismic waves travel more quickly through denser materials and more depth.
Why did Wegener's contemporaries reject his hypothesis of continental drift? he was not a geologist, no driving force
describe the evidence that Wegener used to support his ideas of pangea? continents match up like puzzle pieces, fossils and climate change
with regards to seafloor spreading, what is reversed polarity and how is it used to support the theory of plate tectonics? earth's magnetic field reverses polarity occasionally, causing plate shifting to change directions
describe continental-continental boundaries buckle or compress or sometimes subduct
describe continental-oceanic boundaries oceanic plate goes under the continental plate, forming a subduction zone
describe oceanic-oceanic boundaries create an island arc as one plate subducts
what is the difference between oceanic divergent boundaries and continental convergent boundaries? divergent plates move apart, convergent plates moves closer
why do we often find transform boundaries and faults perpendicular to divergent plate boundaries, as seen along the Mid-atlantic ridge? transform plates move in opposite directions, meaning one plate is moving away while another moves toward
describe that causes convection cells within the mantle and how they drive plate tectonics heating of earth's core makes convetion cells in earth's mantle; heating of mantle rocks causes lower density so they rise
why type of boundary is the san andreas fault? continental transform boundary
what is the basic water cycle? evaporation, condensation, precipitation
in what ways is water spread throughout earth? precipitation, infiltration, and runoff
what are the percentages of freshwater and groundwater on earth? 2.5% freshwater, 0.6% groundwater
what is the water table? an area below earth's surface that is saturated with water
how does groundwater movement result in the development of caverns? carbonic acid in groundwater dissolves limestone
describe 3 ways flowing water erodes a stream channel hydraulic action of water, water corrodes sediments, particles in water strike bedrock
where does most deposition occur in a stream and why? the point bar because it is in the bend of a stream
compare and contract deltas and alluvial fans alluvial contain gravel, sand and small rocks; delta contain sediments from flowing water
what is a dune? a mound of sand formed by the wind
what factors affect the shape and size of a dune? sand supply, wind directions
what conditions are necessary for a dune to form? wind, vegetation, sand
what is a glacier slowly moving mass of ice
what two processes affect the size of a glacier? mass balance and precipitation
what has to happen for a glacier to get bigger or smaller? snow fall to make it bigger, warmer climate makes it smaller
how is the valley formed by an alpine glacier different from the valley formed by a river or stream? glaciers form u-shaped valleys and rivers form v-shaped valleys
describe striations linear marks
describe a cirque bowl-shaped rock valley on the side of a mountain
describe an arete knife-like ridge of rock between two u-shaped valleys
describe a horn a sharp peak of three or more cirques
describe a hanging valley a valley that joins a main valley
describe a roche moutonee a rock formation created by the passing of a glacier
what is moraine parallel debris on the side of a glacier
describe an esker a winding ridge of sand and gravel
describe a kettle lake a shallow, sediment filled body of water
describe a drumlin an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon
what are the 3 most common gases in earth's atmosphere and their percentages? nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, argon <1%
what is the difference between humidity and relative humidity? humidity is actual measure of water vapor, relative humidity is the ratio
list the layers of the atmosphere troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
what takes place in the thermosphere that results in the high teperatures associated with that layer? the themosphere absorbs solar radiation
in which part of the atmosphere do we find the ozone layer? stratosphere
what is absorbed by the ozone layer? UV light
why is the greenhouse effect important for life as we know it to exist on earth? it keeps the earth warm
what are some actions that can result in an increase in the greenhouse effect? burning fossil fuels, deforestation
what are the negative effects of an increasing greenhouse effect? too much radiation, earth would overheat
what effect does the coriolis effect have on hurricanes? wind directions are reflected to the right or left. without it, the wind would blow right into the eye of the storm and there would be no circulation
what is the underlying cause of the various types of atmospheric circulation such as the trade winds and jet streams? uneven heating of earth's surface causes changes in air movement and atmospheric pressure
with regards to the atmosphere, what is the relationship between temperature and pressure? pressure is directly proportional to temperature; both are maintained in the atmosphere during storms
how is the relationship between pressure and temperature related to the kinetic-molecular theory? the last postulate explains that as temperature increases, the kinetic energy increases
describe the air movement in a cold front and in a warm front cold fronts are fast and sloped, warm fronts are slow and lifted toward cooler air
what is the source of energy released by a hurricane? large latent heat of water
is a hurricane considered a cyclone or an anticyclone? cyclone
what is a cyclone? a storm or winds that rotate around a center of low atmospheric pressure
what is an anticyclone? a system of winds that rotate around a center of high atmospheric pressure
why must as air mass rise in order to produce precipitation to cool it down. cold air cannot hold as much moisture, so it rains
is severe weather more likely to be associated with a cold front or a warm front and why? cold fronts because they move more quickly and have more rapid uplift
what are the source regions of air masses for North America? cT, cP, cA, mP, mT
explain cT continental tropical; warm
explain cP continental polar; very cold
explain cA continental arctic; poles very dry and cold
explain mP maritime polar; cold
explain mT maritime tropical; warm
how do ocean waves form? wind
describe the movement of ocean water as waves pass by vertical circle
why do waves break along a shoreline? the base cannot support the top of the wave
what factors determine the directionsof ocean surface currents? wind direction, coriolis, surrounding landforms
what factors determine the directions of deep ocean currents? density differences
why does water at the poles sink? water is cooler and denser; saltwater is denser than freshwater
why do surface water currents in the northern and southern hemispheres flow in opposite directions? coriolis force
what causes coriolis force? rotation of earth
how can ocean surface currents affect the climate of a region? water cools or heats the air
what is upwelling? rising of seawater, magma, or other liquid
why is upwelling important? brings nutrient-rich waters to the surface
Created by: cgibbs906