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When sounds bounce back (reflect) from hard surfaces this is called an . . . ECHO
When a ray of light is reflected from a shiny surface (e.g. a plane mirror) the angle of incidence is equal to . . . the angle of reflection.
A line drawn at 90 degrees to a surface is called a . . . NORMAL
When rays of light change direction as they cross the boundary between two different substances this is called . . . REFRACTION
Refraction occurs when light travels between two different materials because . . . the speed of light is different in each material.
Sound waves are . . . LONGITUDINAL waves
Light waves are . . . TRANSVERSE waves
Light waves travel at . . . the speed of LIGHT
Sound waves travel much slower than light. Their speed in air is approximately . . . 330 m/s
Sound waves can be reflected and . . . REFRACTED
If waves cross a boundary between two different substances at a right angle, there is . . . NO change of direction but there is a change of speed.
What changes when a light ray crosses a boundary between air and glass, travelling into the glass? Speed decreases. Wavelength decreases. It refracts towards the normal.
If a ray of light travels from glass into air, its speed will . . . increase.
Waves travelling across the surface of water are . . . transverse waves.
Water waves can be . . . refracted and reflected.
When water waves travel from deep water to shallow water they are refracted because . . . they travel more slowly in shallow water.
When a ray of light travels from glass,Perspex or water into air . . . some light is refracted and some is reflected from the boundary.
For light travelling from glass to air, if the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle what happens? All of the light is reflected inside the glass.
What is the name of the angle of incidence at which light is refracted at right angles to the normal? Critical angle
Light can travel along an optic fibre because of . . . total internal reflection.
Sound waves travel through solids, liquids and gases as . . . longitudinal waves.
When a wave moves through a gap, or past an obstacle, it . . . spreads out from the edges. This is called diffraction.
Diffraction of radio waves can improve radio reception in hilly areas because . .. the waves bend over the summit and down into the valleys.
Diffraction occurs more strongly when . . . the wavelength is similar to the size of the obstacle.
When white light passes through a 60 degree triangular prism . . . a spectrum of colours is produced.
Different colours of light have different . . . wavelengths.
When a spectrum is produced by a prism the effect is called . . . dispersion.
Which colour is refracted most by a prism? Violet
There are many more kinds of radiation than we can see with our eyes. The full range is called the . . . electromagnetic spectrum
The type of electromagnetic radiation which has the longest wavelength is . . . radio waves.
The type of electromagnetic radiation which has the shortest wavelenth is . . . gamma rays.
When radiation is absorbed, the energy it carries makes . . . the substance which absorbs it hotter.
Radio waves are used to . . . transmit radio and TV programmes between different points on Earth's surface.
Longer wavelength radio signals can be reflected from an electrically charged layer in Earth's upper atmosphere called . . . the ionosphere.
Microwave radiation of short wavelength which can pass through Earth's atmosphere is used to . . . send information to and from satellites and within mobile phone networks.
A microwave oven can be used for cooking because . . . water molecules in food strongly absorb microwaves of the correct wavelength.
Toasters, grills and radiant heaters make use of . . . infra red radiation.
A TV remote control uses . . . infra red radiation.
Light can be sent down optical fibres to allow doctors to see inside a patient's body. The device is called an . . . endoscope.
Sunbeds make use of . . . ultraviolet radiation
X-rays are used to produce shadow pictures of bones because . . . X-rays do not easily pass through bone or metal.
Gamma radiation is used to . . . kill harmful bacteria in food, sterilise surgical instruments and kill cancer cells.
Microwaves are absorbed by the water in cells which may be . . . damaged or killed by the heat released.
Infra red is absorbed by the skin and felt as . . . heat.
Ultraviolet can pass through the skin to deeper tissues. The darker the skin . . . the more UV it absorbs and the less reaches deeper tissues.
X-rays and gamma rays mostly pass through soft tissues but some . . . is absorbed by the cells.
High doses of UV, X and gamma radiation can kill normal cells. Lower doses can . . . cause normal cells to become cancerous.
Sounds are produced when object vibrate. The greater the amplitude of vibrations . . . the louder the sound.
The number of complete vibrations (cycles) each second is called the . . . frequency ( measured in hertz, Hz)
Electronic systems can produce waves which have a frequency higher than humans can hear called . . . ultrasound or ultrasonic waves
Ultrasonic waves are used in medicine for . . . pre-natal scanning
The information needed for an ultrasound scan to be useful is . . . the time taken for an echo to return to the detector.
Our knowledge of the structure of the Earth comes from studying how the shock waves from earthquakes travel through it. These are called . . . seismic waves.
Earthquakes produce waves which can be detected using . . . seismographs or seismometers.
What are the two types of seismic waves that travel through the interior of the Earth? P and S waves.
Which type of seismic waves are faster? Primary (P) waves
What is the difference between the two types of seismic waves? P waves are longitudinal, S waves are transverse.
Which type of seismic wave cannot travel in a liquid? S waves
Seismic waves travel in curved paths through the interior of the Earth because . . . they are being refracted.
The speed and direction of P waves change abruptly as they reach the outer core because . . . its density suddenly decreases.
We know that the outer core is a liquid because . . . S waves can't travel through it
Created by: simonpatel