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BrainBee round 2

Preparation for Round 2: BrainFacts 2012 edition

QuestionAnswer
What is molecular biology? (15) The ability to determine the structure of receptors or other proteins
Newer generation drugs can interact more selectively with their target. This means that it can produce what? (2 things) (15) Better therapeutic effects and fewer side effects
What is a trophic factor? (15) controls the development and survival of specific groups of neurons
What does nerve growth factor do? (15) NGF slows the destruction of neurons that use acetycholine. Stimulates the regeneration of damaged neurons that are known to die in Alzheimer's Disease
What is Nogo-A? (15) A protein that inhibits nerve regeneration. When this is suppressed, damaged spinal cords can regrow
What is a downside to 'vaccinating' patients against those proteins that cause neurological diseases? (15) Increased inflammation when the brain reacts against its proteins.
Name 4 diseases that have shown promising results from engineered antibodies (15) Huntingtons, Parkinsons, Alzheimers and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Name the three cells types of brain cells that stem cell therapy can continuously produce (15) neurons, astrocytes (cells that nourish and protect neurons) and oligodendrocytes (cells that surround axons and help conduct signals)
What are the safest viral vectors for carrying genes into the brain to correct nervous system diseases? (15) Adeno-assiciated virus (AAV) and lentovirus. These are being used in clinical trials in patients with Parkinsons and other rare genetic diseases
How do the new class of drugs work to correct brain diseases? (15) they remove the RNA that code for the proteins that are causing damage.
Approximately how many neurons does the brain contain? (sample) 100 billion
Name the device that measures brain waves (sample) Electroencephalograph
Stargazer mice are experimental models for which type of epilepsy?(sample) Petit mal epilepsy
Prozac relieves symptoms of depression by affecting which neurotransmitter? (Sample) Serotonin
The Greek word for the branches of a tree give us the name of what part of a neuron? (sample) Dendrites
Name the surgical procedure that destroys part of the basal ganglia and helps Parkinson's patients. (sample) Pallidotomy
The biologic clock is located in what part of the brain? (sample) Hypothalamus
Name a brain disorder named after a famous baseball player (sample) Lou Gehrig's disease
What is the most common type of inherited mental retardation? (sample) Fragile X Syndrome
Name the peptide that accumulates in the senile plaques of brains of Alzheimer's patients? (sample) Beta Amyloid
What chromosome is altered to cause Huntington's disease? (sample) Four
What is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation? (sample) Fetal Alcohol syndrome
The abbreviation PET stands for what brain imagine technique? (sample) Positron emission tomography
What kind of molecules are netrins and semaphoring? (sample) Guidance molecules
Name a cognitive disorder associated with chronic alcoholism (sample) Korsakoff's Syndrome
brain tumours come in two types - ? and ? (14) primary (arise in the brain) and metastatic (secondary tumours spread from other parts of the body)
Incidence of primary brain tumours is ? (14) 19 cases per 100,000
Symptoms of tumours vary but often have seizures and headaches why? (14) gliomas release the neurotransmitter glutamate at toxic concentrations and kill off nearby neurons.
Multiple Sclerosis affects 400,000 Americans and 2.5 million worldwide. what is it? (14) An autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin sheath covering the axons. It cannot be cured.
HIV can affect the brain and cause HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). what percentage of people with HIV does this affect? (14) 50%
What is peripheral neuropathy? (14) a type of nerve injury in extremities that causes discomfort and pain in those with HIV related neurocogntive disorder
brain tumours come in two types - ? and ? (14) primary (arise in the brain) and metastatic (secondary tumours spread from other parts of the body)
The incidence of primary brain tumours is ? (14) 19 cases per 100,000
Symptoms of tumours vary but often have seizures and headaches why? (14) gliomas release the neurotransmitter glutamate at toxic concentrations and kill off nearby neurons.
Multiple Sclerosis affects 400,000 Americans and 2.5 million worldwide. what is it? (14) An autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin sheath covering the axons. It cannot be cured.
HIV can affect the brain and cause HIC associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). what percentage of people with HIV does this affect? (14) 50%
What is peripheral neuropathy? (14) a type of nerve injury in extremities that causes discomfort and pain in those with HIV related neurocogntive disorder
What is secondary pathogenesis? (14) damage to the brain that occurs after the initial insult.
What are the treatments to reduce the pressure on a brain after a traumatic brain injury? (14) removal of cerebral spinal fluid, moderate hyperventilation to decrease blood volume and drugs to reduce cellular metabolism
What is the only FDA approved treatment for spinal cord injury? (14) A steroid called Methylprednisolone - given within 8 hours of the injury
Treating pain is done chemically for both chronic and acute pain - what are the 4 main groups of chemical pain relievers? (14) Analgesics - nonopiiods (asprin, ibuprofen, naproxen) Opioids (morphine, codeine), antiepileptics - (gabapentin, topiramate) and antidepressants - (amitripyline, duloxetine)
At the site of an injury, prostaglandins are produce which increase pain sensitivity. What does aspirin do? (14) Prevents the production of prostaglandins.
Epilepsy that is inherited is known as ? (14) idiopathic
Epilepsies can be partial or generalised. What are the symptoms of a partial epileptic seizure? (14) maintains consciousness or has altered awareness and behavioural changes. Can produce localised visual, auditory and skin sensory disturbances, repetitive uncontrolled movements or confused automatic behaviours.
What is vagal nerve stimulation? (14) Treatment for epilepsy that delivers small bursts of electrical energy to the brain via the vegas nerve on the side of the neck.
A stoke deprives the brain of blood (oxygen and nutrients) and can cause permanent disorders. What is the standard drug treatment given to patients within the first three hours? (14) tPA - tissue plasminogen activator - opens blocked blood vessels and restores blood circulation. Helps limit brain damage.
Following a stroke where movement is affected in one arm, encouraging the use of the weakened arm by restricting the use of the good arm helps recovery - True or False? (14) true
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness. they include 6 groups of disorders. What are they? (13) OCD, panic, phobias, social anxiety, generalised anxiety and PTSD
How many people American adults are estimated to have OCD? (13) 2.2 million.
PET scans can reveal changes to brain structure as a result of OCD. What group of medications are effective in treating the symptoms? (13) SSRI drugs - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
What do benzodiazepines do? (13) the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is GABA. Benozos bind to GABA receptors and enhance responsiveness to endogenous GABA.
Forgetfulness, disorientation, difficulty concentrating are the earliest symptoms for which degenerative disease? (12) Alzheimers. Later symptoms are behavioural and finally sufferers become bedridden and incapable of self-care
The earliest stages of Alzheimer's Disease are able to be made with 80% accuracy, but what is the only true confirmation of the disease? (12) Autopsy of the brain
Plaques and tangles between neurones are symptoms of which degenerative brain disease? (12) Alzheimer's. Plaques accumulate around synapses and tangles occur in the cell bodies of neurons.
Early onset Alzheimer's is rare and inherited. Its gene that encodes for APP. What chromosome is it found on? (12) 21.
What animal is associated with research into the disease causing genes for Alzheimer's? (12) Mice.
In NZ, we would know it as motor neuron disease. It affects voluntary motor movements because it attacks the motor neurone and spinal cord. What other names (2) is it known by? (12) Lou Gehrig's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Motor neurone disease does not have a strong family history. Possible causes for it are ?, ? and ? (12) excess glutamate, too much oxygen (oxidative distress) and an autoimmune response.
Which is the most common hereditary degenerative brain disease? (12) Huntington's Disease. It affects the basal ganglia and the cortex.
When was the Huntingtons Gene identified? (12) 1993
IN the late 1950's it was discovered that on a cellular level, Parkinsons Disease is the result of ? (12) loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantial nigra pars compacta (found in the mid-brain). This discovery is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs in the field of neurology.
What does the neurotoxin MPTP do? (12) It is converted in the brain to a substance that destroys dopamine neurone. It is used in rodent and nonhuman models as a tool for understanding how parkinsons affects the brain.
What is Pallidotomy? (12) surgical deactivation of the palladium and sub thalamic nucleus, which greatly decreases symptoms of Parkinson's.
Name two more recent techniques for treating Parkinson's (12) Deep brain stimulation. stem cell implantation. IN animal models, gene transfer of trophic factors
Which receptor does nicotine affect? (11) acetylcholine nicotinic receptor. It stimulates the adrenal glands and discharges epinephrine. Also releases dopamine.
Name the two prescription drugs used to treat nicotine addiction. (11) bupropion and varenicline. They both act on the acetylcholine nicotinic receptors.
What is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation? (11) Fetal alcohol syndrome.
What is the main chronic health problem from alcohol addiction? (11) cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver.
Which 2 brain receptors does alcohol interact with? (11) GABA neurotransmitter: so calms anxiety, impairs muscle control and delays reaction times. It also decreases the function of NMDA which recognises glutamate. (=clouded thinking and coma).
Drug treatment for alcoholism? (11) Naltrexone.
Which part of the brain contains many THC receptors? (11) The hippocampus.
Opiates are good pain relievers. Name two opiates (11) Heroin and Morphine. They both mimic the effects of endogenous opioids that increase the amount of dopamine released in the brain reward system.
What is the standard treatment for heroin addiction? (11) methadone is the main one. Naloxone, naltrexone and buprenorphine are other medications that are used to treat.
Names two psychostimulants (11) cocaine and amphetamines. They greatly elevate the amount of dopamine in the brain (specifically the nucleus accumbens)
How do the club drugs (ketamine, ecstasy, GHB, rohypnol) work on the brain? (11) They have euphoric (ecstasy) and sedative properties and work on the central nervous system depressants.
What are the main characteristics of autism? (10) impaired social skills, verbal and non-verbal communication difficulties, narrow obsessive interests or repetitive behaviours.
Autism is thought to be inherited. True or false? (10) True. However, there are over 100 genes associated with the disorder so there is not ONE single predictive test available.
ADHD affects what percentage of school-age children? (10) 5-8%. It also has a strong genetic influence.
How is ADHD treated? (give 3 ways) (10) parent education, school-based interventions and medications.
What is the cause of Down's Syndrome? (10) an extra copy of chromosome 21. Risks increase with the age of the mother. Downs syndrome has over 50 physical and developmental characteristics.
Dyslexia is the most common form of learning disability. True or false? (10) True.
Dyslexics show differences in 3 brain regions in the left hemisphere. What are these areas? (10) parieto-temporal, occiptio-temporal and Broca's area (left frontal)
Name the 3 approaches to research in the field of neuroscience. (9) animal research. imaging techniques. Genomic investigations.
which animal was used as a model for the human eye? (9) fruitfly.
Which animal was used as a developmental model? (9) zebrafish
Which animal did Nobel Laurate Eric Kandal use as a model for learning and memory? (9) seaslug
Rats and mice were used to study Parkinsons and ADHD. How? (9) to make a roadmap of the brain connections. Specifically targeting the synapses and chemical pathways. These could then be used for other disorders, like Alzheimer's.
Nobel Laurate Arvid Carlsson used which animals to learn that dopamine was depleted in Parkinson's? (9) rabbits and mice and pigeons.
What did neuroscientists David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel win the 1981 Nobel Prize for? (9) Amblyopia and then understanding critical period for developing vision. They used cats and monkeys to undertake this work.
A variety of techniques make studying the brain possible. What is micro dialysis? (9) microdialysis is measuring the amount of brain chemical in a particular area of the brain by injecting acids or enzymes.
A variety of techniques make studying the brain possible. What is electrophysiology? (9) studying the electrical properties of neurons by recording electoral activity using an EEG. e.g. to measure hearing function in infants.
A variety of techniques make studying the brain possible. What is PET? (9) Position emission topography. measures blood flow or energy consumption based on the detection of radioisotopes introduced into the brain.
A variety of techniques make studying the brain possible. What is MRI? (9) exposure to a magnetic field. provides a 3D image of organs and structures. non-invasive. can help reveal structure and functioning.
Name 5 other techniques used to assess brain functioning. (9) MRS, fMRI, MEG, NIRS and TMS.
Name the syndrome that causes severe problems with the brain, eyes, muscles and leads to death in infancy or early childhood. (9) Walker-Warburg syndrome. It has at least 5 genes associated with it.
Duchenne muscular distrophy is inherited. True of False. (9) True. It is a progressive muscle disease.
What does the gene L1S1 do? (9) tells the brain how to grow. People without it have severe intellectual disability.
Next generation sequencing has lead to the identification of the gene MLL2 which is responsible for which syndrome? Kabuki Syndrome - congenital intellectual disabilities and distinctive facial features.
What are chromosome microarrays? (9) looks at the overall makeup of genes to see if segments of chromosomes are missing (deletions) or have too many (duplications)
Knowing which genes are associated with a disease/syndrome is useful because? (9) It allows for the development of targeted therapies and interventions
Name 4 diseases associated with an ageing brain. (8) Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Pick's Disease and Lewy body disease.
When does the brain reach its maximum weight? (8) aged 20
How does brain tissue respond to damage or loss of nerons/ (8) 1) expand dendrites and finetune connetions to other neurone. 2) inducing change in its axons and dendrites. 3) a very small number of stem cells remain in healthy adult brain.
An ageing brain is more or less ad effective as a younger brain. True or false? (8) True. Some small declines in spatial tasks only.
Remaining neurons in an ageing brain can adapt by expanding their roles. true or false. (8) True
In rat studies, cognitive performance can be improved by what? (8) enriched environments (stimulating and challenging) and physical activity.
Most causes of normal brain ageing remain a mystery. Theories include 4 main ideas, what are they? (8) "ageing" genes get switched on. Hormonal influences. Immune systems gone awry. Accumulation of oxidative damage.
Individual variation in responding to stress is dependant on what? (7) The individuals perception of external events.
stress is defined as any stimulus that threatens ? (7) homeostasis
A stressful situation activates three major communication systems to regulate bodily functions, what are they? (7) Voluntary nervous system + autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic branches) + neuroendocrine system
The voluntary nervous system sends messages to muscles so that we can respond to sensory information. True or False? (7) True
The autonomic system (sympathetic and parasympathetic branches) has specific tasks to do - what are they? sympathetic - causes arteries to relax and allows blood to move to muscles and away from digestion, skin, kidneys. Releases epinephrine (adrenaline). parasympathetic - regulates and soothes body once stressor has gone
The neuroendocrine system also maintains internal functioning in stressful situations. How? (7) stress hormones travel through the blood and stimulate the release of other hormones which affect metabolic rate and sexual function.
In response to a signal from the hypothalamus, the adrenal glands secrete glucocorticoids (hormones) What is their role in the stress response ? They mobilise energy into the bloodstream and delay all non-essential processes. They include cortisol and epinephrine. They also have a role in regulating other daily functions.
What happens to the body during chronic stress situations? (7) overexposure to glucocorticoids and epinephrine can cause a wide variety of effects - impaired memory, immune suppression and energy stored as fat. It can cause high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries and ageing. sleep deprivation.
A positive effect of immunosupression from glucocorticoids is what? (7) can help prevent autoimmune disorders.
When were the stages of sleep first discovered and how does they learn about them? (6) in the 1950's using an EEG to measure brain waves.
Each night a person has two types of sleep, what are they? (6) slow wave sleep and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. The slow waves become less deep and the REM periods start at around 10 minutes and more prolonged (roughly 90 minutes) until waking occurs.
During REM sleep, a person has atonia. What is Atonia? (6) paralysis of the bodies muscles
Name 4 common sleep disorders (6) excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep leg jerks /REM behaviour disorder and Narcolepsy
Sleep is regulated by which 3 parts of the brain (6) wakefulness is regulated by the upper brainstem using acetycholine, norepinehrine, serotonin and glutamate. Hypothalamus: nerve cells containing orexin + VLPO ventrolateral pre optic nucleus the thalamus and basal forebrain also contain acetycholine
Why do we get sleepy? 2 systems control this (6) 1)circadian system which is regulated by the superchiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. It receives info directly from the retina 2) homeostatic system which responds to progressively longer wake periods by increasing the urge to sleep.
What is adenosine? (6) It is a neurochemical that increases with long periods of wakefulness. It slows down cellular activity and arousal.
What is an alpha motor neuron? (5) A single motor neuron that controls many muscle fibres. As a group they are known as a motor unit and are a critical link between brain and muscles.
What do muscle spindles do? (5) They are receptors in muscles that sense slight muscle stretches. This information controls both voluntary and involuntary movements.
What are inhibitory interneurons? (5) these are connecting neurons within the spinal cord that helps coordinate activity across agonist and antagonist muscles.
What is the name of the specialised sense organs in muscle tendons? (5) The Golgi tendon organs. They detect the force applied by a contracting muscle, allowing the brain to sense and control the muscular force exerted during movement.
What is the name of the reflexes that are used if you stand on a sharp object? (5) flexion withdrawal reflex - leg is immediately lifted AND the other leg responds with increased extension to maintain balance. this is called the crossed extension reflex
Why are the networks of neurons in the spine being studied? (5) to determine the degree to which they can be used to recover basic postural and locomotor function after severe paralysis.
How does the brain control voluntary movement? (5) The motor cortex is the main area. It interacts with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum
which area of the brain helps us adjust motor output to deal with changing conditions like growth, disability, changes in weight and ageing? the cerebellum
What did H.M have removed? (4) Medial temporal lobe (hippocampus)
What does the medial temporal lobe do? (4) Forms, organises consolidates and retrieves memories.
There are 5 facets of memory. What are they? (4) Declarative memory, working memory, semantic memory, episodic memory and procedural memory
What is LTP? (4) Long term potentiatiation. Increase in strength of synaptic response which involves NMDA, calcium ions and cAMP
what is wernickes area do?(4) Comprehension of language.
What does broca's as area do?(4) Production of language.
Molecular cascade leading to protein synthesis is essential for long term memory. True or false?(4) True
FOXP2 is a gene that codes for a protein that switches other genes on and off in the brain. True or false?(4) TRue
What does the automatic nervous system do?(4) Connects the central nervous system with the internal organs
What are colli colli?(1) 2 small hills in midbrain that play a role in visual and auditory reflexes and relaying to the thalamus.
How long is the spinal cord?(1) 43cm
What do glial cells do? (1) Transport nutrients, clean up debris and hold neurons in place.
How does a neuron know when to fire? (1) The action potential is raised by and electrical charge.
What do amino acids do? (1) They are the building blocks for proteins
Glycine and GABA inhibit the firing of neurons. True or false? (1) True
Which amino acids are associated with GABA? (1) Hunting tons
What are catecholamines? (1) They induce dopamine and norepinephrine
What are the three areas (circuits) that dopamine is involved with? (1) Movement. Cognition and emotion. Regulating the endocrine system.
What do Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and korsakoffs disease have in common? (1) Deficits in norepinephrine
What does the enzyme cyclooxgenase do? (1) Short lived powerful. Can induce a fever or pain in response to inflammation.
What are the 3 layers that emerge during early stages of embryonic development? (2) Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
What is neural induction? (2) Signalling molecules released by the mesoderm turn on certain genes and turn off others
What does the sonic hedgehog do? (2) It's a signalling molecule that is secreted from mesodermal tissue lying beneath developing spinal cord. It turns nearby nerve cells into glia. Further away ones become motor neurons and further still inter neurons.
Migration of cells happens in precise orders and the environment can affect the growth and development of a human. When does redial migration happen? (2) Last step. Occurs with help of glia after neural plate grows, fuses, 3 sections formed, after hemispheres and accumulation.
How do neurons interconnect? (2) 1. Growth of dendrites. 2. Growth of axons.
How do growth cones seek out their precise destination?(2) With the help of signalling molecules including neutrin, semaphore and ephrin
How much space in the brain is devoted to vision (3) 30%
Each half of the cerebrum is responsible for processing information received from the opposite side of the body. True or false? (3) True
What is the lateral geniculate nucleus? (3) An intermediate way station between retina and visual cortex. Lives in the thalamus.
Do rods or cones provide most of our vision? (3) Cones. Even though there are way more rods (95%)
What is the fovea?(3) Central part of the retina
Visual processing systems do three things - what? (3) Shape. Colour. Movement+location+spatial
What is strabismus? (3) Eyes not properly aligned. Can't fuse the two images together. Can be corrected.
Sound waves are funnelled to the tympanic membrane (eardrum) which passes it onto the bones of the middle ear. Name these bones. (3) Malleus, incus, stapes. These push onto the oval window to produce waves in the cochlea.
Hair cells topped with mircoscopic stereocillia covert mechanical vibration to electrical signals. How many fibres are there on the auditory nerve? (3) 30,000
What side of the brain specilaises in perceiving and producing speech? Left.
Where are olfactory bulbs located? (3) The underside of the frontal lobe.
Is the transmission of touch Information from the body topographic? (3) Yes
What are nociceptors? (3) The sensory fibres that respond to damaged tissue and can cause pain
What is the type of Chemical involved when a tissue injury happens - it enhances sensitivity and causes pain (3) Prostaglandins
What is allodynia? (3) When innocuous stimuli can produce pain, like sunburn.
How are pain and itch messages transmitted? (3) Through small myelinated fibres (sharp pain)and C fibers (which are un myelinated)(dull diffuse)
How can pain be suppressed? (3) Endogenous opioids or endorphins
Created by: gayeb