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psychology un4 ch12

the neural basis of learning

Adaptive plasticity The ability of the brain to change,adapt and group throughout life (but does diminish with age).
Circuit formation Axons of new neurons growing out to target cells and form synapses with them.
Circuit pruning The elimination of excess neurons and synapses.
Critical periods Narrow period of time in an animal's development when it must have a certain experience to ensure specific learning.
Developmental plasticity The ability of synapses to be modified as an infant or child.
Experience-dependent learning Learning which occurs at any time during an individual's life as a result of experience.
Experience-expectant learning Occurs during sensitive periods and refers to experiences necessary for learning to occur.
Migration During developmental plasticity, the movement of newly formed neurons.
Myelination A process in the brain whereby the axons of the neurons in a child's brain become covered in myelin, a white, fatty covering that insulates a neuron's axon and speeds transmission, continuing until the early 20s.
Neural pathway Bundles of neurons which provide connections between one part of the nervous system and another.
Neurotransmitter Chemicals that help the communication across nerve synapses.
Proliferation The first stage in the development of the nervous system, where cells destined to become neurons multiply.
Reorganisation A reordering of neural connections so that an existing part of the brain adopts a new function.
Sensitive periods Periods in time which are particularly suited to learning things due to the nature of the growing brain.
Synapse formation (synaptogenesis) The process of moulding or forming new synapses.
Created by: lydiamcc
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