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Midterm Review

Pharm- Mod 2

How does muscarinic (cholinergic) activation affect the body? REST & DIGEST, Slows HR, Increases output of exocrine glands and 'digestive glands', Increases GI muscle movement and constricts bronchi, Emptying of bladder, Vasodilation (poss. hypotension), Pupillary and ciliary muscle constriction for near vision
What is the brand name of Bethanechol? Class? Therapeutic uses? Adverse effects? 1 Major nursing implication? Brand Name: Urecholine Class: Cholinergic-Muscarinic agonist Therapeutic Uses: Non-obstructive urinary retention Adverse effects? Enhanced cholinergic activation symptoms Nursing imp: Take on empty stomach
What drug is used for Cholinergic poisoning? What are the symptoms? ATROPINE Sx: decreased HR, hypotension, increased salivation, diarrhea
How do anti-cholinergics affect the body? All opposite of cholinergic activation. CAN'T SEE CAN'T PEE CAN'T SPIT CAN'T POOP *Can cause Tachycardia, check BP and call Dr.
What drug is used for PRE-ANESTHESIA, disorders of the eye, BRADYCARDIA, and MUSCARINIC POISONING? It is seen in emergency situations during cardiac arrest. ATROPINE- the prototype for anti-cholinergics. It counteracts the bradycardia caused by certain procedures.
What are Atropine's adverse effects? Dry mouth, blurred vision, elevated IOP, urinary retention, TACHYCARDIA
What anti-cholinergic drug is used for OAB? Overactive bladder Oxybutynin- DitroPAN (Think of a bed pan)
What drug is given for anti-cholinergic poisoning? What are the symptoms? Physostigmine An AChase inhibitor to elevate ACh Sx: dry mouth, blurred vision, hot/dry skin
What are the two classes of adrenergic agonists and in what 3 ways do they differ? Catecholamines and Non-catecholamines 1. Catecholamines can't be used orally, N-Cs can. 2. Catecholamines have a very short duration of action, N-Cs have a longer one. 3. Catecholamines CAN'T cross the BBB.
What are the the 5 catecholamines we need to know and what are their uses? 1. Epinephrine (EpiPen)-Anaphylatic shock, eye procedures 2. NE- Hypotension, cardiac arrest 3. Isoproterenol- Shock, cardiac arrest, asthma, bronchospams 4. Dopamine=KIDNEYS! 5. Dobutamine-heart failure
What are the 3 Non-Catecholamines and what are they used for? 1. Ephedrine-Asthma, shock 2. Phenylephrine-Sudafed PE 3. Terbutaline (Brethine)- Preterm labor, Asthma
What is a major adverse reaction of Adreneric alpha-1 agonists? What is used to treat it? Tissue necrosis from IV Tx: Regitine!!!! Phentolamine
What organ do we associate adrenergic beta-1 agonists with? beta-2? BETA-1=HEART!!!! Drugs-Dobutamine, Isoproterenol BETA-2=LUNGS and UTERUS!!!!! Drugs-Terbutaline, Isoproterenol
Adrenergic antagonists Alpha Blockers- Therapeutic uses, adverse effects, and drugs? Alpha blockers -HBP and BPH -Orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, Nasal congestion -Prazosin(Minipress)-HTN, Doxazosin (Cardura)-HTN, Tamsulosin (Flomax)-BPH
Adrenergic antagonists Beta-Blockers- Therapeutic uses, adverse effects, and drugs? Beta Blockers -HBP, MI, Heart failure, MIGRAINE HEADACHES, Glaucoma - Bronchoconstriction, HYPOGLYCEMIA -Propranolol (Inderal), Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol)
The most important adverse response to beta-2 activation is????? What about beta-blockers? Beta-2 activation can cause HYPERglycemia-Think adrenergic agonist-FIGHT OR FLIGHT! Need glucose for NRG! Beta blockers can cause HYPOglycemia
What is Dopamine used for? Used in shock to dilate vasculature of kidneys to increase renal perfusion and decrease renal failure risk.
Created by: ederight