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Physical Science 2

Review

QuestionAnswer
What are the layers of earth's interior? crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Describe the Earth's core. densest and hottest layer; generates a magnetic field; outer-liquid; inner-solid; made of iron and nickel
Describe the Earth's mantle. majority of earth's mass; more dense and hot than crust; lithosphere-more like crust; asthenosphere- thick, plastic-like
Describe the Earth's crust. least dense; coolest; thinnest; rock silicate material
What is the difference between the crust and the lithosphere? Although both are similar in composition, the lithosphere is not considered a layer
Explain the principle of superposition. The lowest rock is the oldest.
Explain the principle of original horizonality. because of gravity, rocks are originally layered horizontally.
Explain the law of crosscutting relationships. The layer that cuts into other layers must be younger than the layers it cuts into.
Explain inclusions. If there are small parts of rocks from underneath, they must also be older.
Explain the principle of lateral continuity. rocks extend laterally in all directions.
Explain the principle of faunal succession. fossils are relative in age based on the rock they are deposited in.
how is relative dating different from absolute dating? relative dating gives you age in relation to other things; absolute dating gives an exact age.
Describe index fossils. fossils that can be used to identify age in relation to other fossils and rock layers.
describe radiometric dating using decay rates of radiometric isotopes to determine exact age.
what characteristics does a fossil have to have in order to be considered a useful index fossil? abundance, easily recognizable, small, embedded in rock; short lifespan
what factors do geologists have to consider when choosing what type of radiometric dating method to use on a sample? contamination; age; loss or gain of isotopes
what are 3 reasons why a particular radiometric dating method may not work for a particular sample? no isotopes; contamination, metamorphosis
Define fossils preserved remains of animals or plants.
Define the principle of uniformitarianism. scientific facts observed today are true for history as well.
Define unconformity. erosional surface that separates rocks of different ages; showing that rocks weren't continuousy deposited.
What is the fossil record? preserved remains for animals and plants from an area.
What is the rock record? rocks that currently exist.
What are the limitations of the rock and fossil record? hard parts over-represented.
How is the principle of uniformitarianism used to learn about Earth's history? current geology is unchanged from history
What are the four main spans of geologic time? Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
What happened during the Precambrian era? single-celled organisms
What happened during the Paleozoic Era? Plants and invertebrates, mass extinction
What happened during the Mesozoic Era? dinosaurs, mass extinction
What happened during the Cenozoic Era? human evolution
What is a mass extinction? widespread death on earth
What are the five characteristics that all minerals have? solid, crystalline, homogenous, natural, inorganic
Four examples of silicate minerals feldspar, mica, talc, garnet
two types of minerals silicate and nonsilicate
four examples of nonsilicate minerals. pyrite, halite, calcite, sulfer
three main rock types igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
How does each type of rock form? igneous-melting of magma, cooling; sedimentary-cementing and compacting, lithification; metamorphic-change, morph
What is the rock cycle? cycle of processes undergone by rocks
compare and contrast weathering and erosion both agents of wind, water, and ice; weathering breaks rocks down, erosion moves them.
compare and contrast mechanical and chemical weathering chemical weathering breaks down composition, mechanical breaks down size, shape, or color
what are the main agents of erosion? wind, water, waves, ice
How do S and P waves help us understand the interior of Earth? waves travel more quickly through dense materials.
Wegener's contemporaries didn't believe him because not a geologist, no driving force
evidence Wegener used to support his ideas continents line up, fossils, and climatology
reverse polarity Earth's magnetic field reverses and changes direction of shifting
continental-continental boundaries two continental plates collide and buckle or compress; sometimes subduction
continental-oceanic boundaries oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, oceanic plate subducts
oceanic-oceanic boundaries two oceanic plates collide and create an island arc, one plate subducts
divergent boundaries vs. convergent boundaries divergent-plates are moving apart; convergent-plates are moving together
why are transform boundaries usually found perpendicular to divergent plate boundaries? transform plates slide past each other; divergent plates slide away from each other
What causes convection cells in the mantle and how do they drive plate tectonics? lower mantle rocks are heated and become less dense causing them to rise, which creates vertical currents in the mantle
What type of boundary is the San Andreas Fault? continental transform fault
What percentage of Earth's water is groundwater or groundwater? 2.5% freshwater, 0.6% groundwater
What is the water table and what happens when it meets the ground surface? level below the ground that is saturated with water; creates visible bodies of water when it meets earth's surface
How does groundwater movement result in caverns? carbonic acid in groundwater dissolves limestone
Describe 3 ways flowing water erodes a stream channel. water moves sediments, water corrodes sediments, water erode bedrock
Where does most deposition occur in streams and why? point bar, where current is the slowest
Compare and contrast deltas and alluvial fans both are sedimentary landforms; alluvial-intermixed gravel, sand, and small rocks; deltas- sediments from streams or rivers.
What is a dune? a mound of sand or sediment formed by wind
What factors affect the shape and size of a dune? sand supply, wind directions
What conditions are necessary to form a dune wind, vegetation, sand
what is a glacier? slowly moving mass of ice
what affects the size of a glacier mass balance, precipitation
What makes a glacier larger or smaller? snow falls to make them bigger, warmth makes them smaller
how is a valley formed by an alpine glacier different from a valley formed by a river or stream? glaciers-u shaped; river or stream-v shaped
Describe striations ridges or linear marks
describe cirques bowl-shaped rock valley
describe aretes knife-like ridge of rock
describe a horn sharp peak formed by 3 or more cirques
describe a hanging valley joins a main valley, usually by erosion
describe a rouche moutonee bedrock that was passed over by a glacier
describe a moraine debris on the side of a glacier
describe an esker long, winding ridge of sand and gravel
describe a kettle lake shallow, sediment filled body of water
describe a drumlin elongated hill in the shape of a half buried egg
What are the percentages of the 3 most common gases in earth's atmosphere? nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, argon <1%
What is the difference between humidity and relative humidity? humidity-actual amount of water vapor; relative humidity-ratio of actual amount
layers of the atmosphere troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
Why are high temperatures associated with the thermosphere? nitrogen and oxygen absorb radiation from space and convert it to heat
Where is the ozone layer and what does it absorb? stratosphere; UV rays
Why is the greenhouse effect important for life on earth? it keeps earth's surface warm
What are some actions that can increase greenhouse effect? burning fossil suels
What are the negative effects of an increased greenhouse effect? too much radiation, earth would overheat
What does coriolis effect have to do with hurricanes? Northern Hemisphere deflects wind to the right, Southern Hemisphere deflects wind to the left
What is the underlying cause of atmospheric circulation? uneven heating of earth's surface changes air movement and atmospheric pressure
What is the relationship between temperature and pressure in the atmosphere? they are directly proportional
How are pressure and temperature related to the Kinetic Molecular Theory? KE of a particle depends on temperature
Describe air movement in cold and warm fronts cold-fast and sloped; warm-slow and lifted
What energy is released by a hurricane and is it considered a cyclone or an anticyclone? large latent heat of water, cyclone
Compare and contrast cyclones and anticyclones. Cyclone-low atmospheric pressure; anticyclone-high atmospheric pressure
Why must an air mass rise in order to produce precipitation? to cool it down. cold air cannot hold as much moisture
Is severe weather most likely from a warm front or a cold front? cold fronts are quicker and have rapid uplift
What are the source regions of air masses for North America and what weather is associated with each? cT: warm, cP: cold, cA: very cold, mP: cold, mT: warm
How do ocean waves form? wind
Describe water movement as waves pass. vertical circle
Why do waves break along the shoreline? base of the wave cannot support the top
What factors determine the directions of ocean surface currents? wind direction/rotation, coriolis effect, surrounding landforms.
what factors determine the directions of deep ocean currents? density differences
why does water at the pole sink? ocean water is denser near the poles because it is not warmed by the sun as much
why do surface currents in northern and southern hemispheres flow in opposite directions? coriolis force
how can ocean surface currents affect the climate of a region? water chills or heats the air
why is upwelling and why is it important? rising of seawater, magma or other liquid; brings nutrients to the surface
Describe the origin of the universe according to the big bang theory. catacalysmic explosion 10-20 billion years ago of small volume of matter at high density and temperature
What are the three main pieces of evidence that support the big bang theory? redshift, cosmic background radiation, and light element abundance
define elliptical galaxies shape of a spheroid
define irregular galaxies no specific form and low mass
define quasars starlike; most distant, luminous objects in universe
define spiral galaxies spiral structure
define galaxy system of millions or billions of stars held together by gravitational attraction
define hubble's law Objects in the universe move apart from each other; the farther away, the faster they move
define local group group of galaxies that includes milky way
define light-year astronomical distance unit based on distance light travels in a year
define spacetime time is another dimension that can be warped in space
what does the color of a star indicate? intensity of emitted energy; more energy at blue, less at red
wha is nuclear fusion and how does it relate to stars? nuclear reaction in which a heavier nucleus is formed; luminous energy of stars come from nuclear reactions in the center
What is the difference between apparent magnitude and luminosity? luminosity-energy radiated each second in all directions; apparent magnitude-how bright an object appears
How does the Hurtzprung-Russell Diagram classify stars? absolute luminosity vs. spectral types & temperatures
Stages of evolution for stars like our sun nebula-main sequence-red giant-planetary nebula-white dwarf
stages of evolution for massive stars nebula-main sequence-red supergiant-supernova-neutron star if highmass, black hole if very high mass
describe the structure of the sun core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona, sunspots, granulation, prominence
characteristics of the sun population 1 star, differential rotation, no definite boundary, not directly observable
How does the moon's position determine the phase observed from earth? its position in relation to the sun
why does the same face of the moon always face earth? earth has influenced the moon's rotation and slowed it down to match earth's orbit
under what conditions does a solar eclipse occur? at New Moon, when the moon is between earth and sun
Under what conditions does a lunar eclipse occur? at Full Moon, when the earth is between sun and moon
How does the gravitational pull from both the sun and the moon affect the tides on earth? both pull on water, causing high and low tides
Name the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Name the Jovian planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Describe Mercury Smallest planet, fastest orbit
describe venus hottest planet, similar to earth in size and mass
describe earth densest plant, high in iron
describe mars red surface, largest volcano
describe jupiter immense size, great red spot, most moons
describe saturn great white spot, rings, least dense
describe uranus rotates on its side
describe neptune great dark spot, violent hurricanes, not visible to naked eye
what is a comet? small solar system that orbits the sun; visible coma; rises and sets with the sun
what is an asteroid? small solar system that orbits the sun; no visible coma; orbits the sun at 3au
what is a meteorite? small rock or particle of debris in our solar system; visibile as a bright streak of light
why is pluto no longer considered a planet? a planet must have cleared its orbit
describe an asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter; hundreds of throusands of asteroids in a huge ring
describe a Kuiper belt beyond planets; contains many asteroids, comets, and other small bodies made of ice
describe an oort cloud beyond Kuiper belt: sphere of comets that circle the sun at a great distance
define waxing in a lunar cycle amount of lighted area increases
define waning in a lunar cycle amount of lighted area decreases
what contributed to the development of the ozone layer? photosynthesis
What is the nebular theory? the theory of the formation of the solar system
What and when are spring tides? Full or New Moon, moon and sun's gravitational forces are combined and tides are higher and lower
What and when are Neap Tides? first quarter and last quarter; Sun and Moon's pulls are working against each other
What happens during an equionox? "equal night"-night and day are nearly the same length all over the globe
What happens during a solstice? one of the poles is farthest or closest to the sun
When is the Spring (Vernal) Equinox? March 20 or 21
When and what is the Summer Solstice in Northern Hemisphere? June 21-pole is closest to the sun in the northern hemisphere and farthest from the sun in the southern hemisphere
When is the Autumn equinox? September 22
When and what is the Winter Solstice in Northern Hemisphere? December 20 or 22-pole is farthest from the sun in the northern hemisphere and closest to the sun in the southern hemisphere.
put these in order by size: group, sun, universe, Milky Way, Jupiter, supercluster, solar system, Earth, universe, supercluster, group, Milky Way, solar system, sun, Jupiter, earth
what does blue-shifted mean? moving toward earth
what does red-shifted mean? moving away from earth
what are the properties of minerals? crystal form, hardness, cleavage, density, streak
What are the two types of igneous rocks? intrusive and extrusive
describe intrusive igneous rocks slow cooling; large crystals; underground formation
describe extrusive igneous rocks cools quickly,small crystals, above ground formation
what are the two types of sedimentary rock? clastic and chemical
describe clastic sedimentary rock sediment; pieces of rock
describe chemical sedimentary rock crystallization from solution or living things
what are the two types of metamorphic rock? foliated and nonfoliated
describe foliated metamorphic rock layers of minerals
describe nonfoliated metamorphic rock single mineral recrystallized; no melting or dissolving
how are intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks formed? extrusive-lava, intrusive-magma
how are sedimentary rocks formed? weathering, erosion, deposition, and lithification
how are metamorphic rocks formed? heat and pressure causes a reaction within the rock
what kind of stress do transform boundaries have? shear stress
what kind of stress do convergent boundaries have? compressional stress
what kind of stress do divergent boundaries have? tensional stress
What do P-waves travel through? solids, liquids, or gases
what do S-waves travel through? solids
where do Love and Rayeigh waves occur? only on the surface
How old is the earth? 4.6 billion years old
What is karst topography? areas where caverns, caves, and sinkholes occur
What are the steps of the hydrologic cycle? heat from the sun speeds up molecules, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff or infiltration
What is an aquifer? reservoirs of water
what is a spring? water coming out of the ground
What is found in an unsaturated zone of the water table? moist soil
what is found in a saturated zone of the water table? groundwater
what is a perched water table? pools on top of clay
What is land subsidence? lowering of land due to pumping of wells
what is a sinkhole? a funnel shaped hole in the ground
describe the troposphere where we are; thinnest layer; weather
describe the stratosphere thicker; ozone layer; UV ray absorption, warms up beyond ozone
describe the mesosphere middle layer; temp decreases with altitude
describe the thermosphere absorbs x-ray and UV radiation and Gamma Rays; temp increase
What is the Ionosphere? not a true layer of the atmosphere; electrified
Describe the exosphere where satellites orbit
What is an air mass? a volume of air that remains in tact as it travels
What is a front? where air masses meet
describe a protostar when hydrogen come together due to gravity and temp heats up; fusion starts
describe a main sequence star fusing to for Helium
What occurs in a red giant? thermal expansion; high luminosity
describe a supernova iron fusion; collapse of core; explosion
describe white dwarfs when out of Hydrogen, begins carbon fusion; low luminosity
what is a nebulae clouds of gas and dust; creates small stars
what is a neutron star core of a massive star collapses until only subatomic particles
what is a pulsar spinning neutron star; emits radio waves @ regular intervals
what is a black hole? singularity with high density
what are the sizes of stars from smallest to largest M, K, G, F, A, B, O
what is dark energy? energy that cannot be observed
what is gravitational lensing? when light bends around massive objects
what is the principle of equivalence? acceleration mimics gravity
what are sunspots intense magnetic fields
describe the terrestrial planets rocky; greater density
describe the jovian planets colder, less dense, way bigger
How was the moon formed? Earth impacted a small object and the collision formed the earth and the moon
how long does it take for earth to orbit the sun? one year
what determines earth's seasons? tilted axis
how often does the moon orbit the earth? once a month
how long does it take for the moon to make one rotation? one month
what are data? facts and statistics that have been collected
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative data? qualitative describes something; quantitative is numerical
what is a model? 3d representation of something; typically on a smaller scale
what are some reasons that scientists use models? to make exact observations and predictions
what is a controlled experiment? control group and experimental group; finding an exact factor
what is an observational study? drawing inferences from studies
what is a field study? collecting information outside of the office
what is a laboratory study? research done in a lab
What SI unit is used for mass? kg-kilogram
what SI unit is used for length? m-meter
what SI unit is used for electric current? A-ampere
what SI unit is used for temperature? k-kelvin
what SI unit is used for time? s-second
what unit is used for energy? J-joule
what unit is used for power? W-watt
what unit is used for force? N-newton
what tools measure length? meter stick, measuring tape
what tools measure mass? electronic scale or balance
what tools measure weight? spring balance
what tools measure current? ammeter
what tools measure voltage? volt meter
what tools measure volume of a liquid? graduated cylinder
what tools measure temperature thermometer
define hypothesis educated guess
define theory ideas intended to explain something
define law an observed phenomenon
define fact an idea that has been tested and proven
what is Newton's first law of motion? everything stays in motion or at rest; inertia
what is Newton's second law of motion? f=ma
what is Newton's third law of motion? for every action is an equal and opposite reaction
what is gravitational potential energy? potential energy due to being higher off of the ground
what is chemical potential energy? potential energy within chemical bonds
what is electrical potential energy? like a battery
what is the law of conservation of momentum? momentum cannot be created or destroyed
what are elastic collisions? total kinetic energy is maintained
what are inelastic collisions? some kinetic energy is changed to another form
what is the law of conservation of energy? energy cannot be created or destroyed
what is Coulomb's law? explains the relationship between two charges. charge, charge, distance relationship
whatis the zeroth law of thermodynamics? thermal equilibrium
what is the first law of thermodynamics? conservation of matter and energy
what is the second law of thermodynamics? energy tends to disperse into disorganized form
what is the third law of thermodynamics? entropy approaches zero as temperature approaches zero
define amplitude height from the middle of the wave to the top
define wavelength distance between top of one wave to top of next wave
define frequency rate at which vibration occurs
define period time required for a complete cycleof vibration to pass
define reflection bouncing of waves
define refraction change in direction of a wave passing through a medium caused by change in speed
define diffraction spreading of waves due to an interference that is comparable in size
how are net forces determined? sum of forces acting on the objects
how does magnetic force affect charged particles or objects? potential energy is stored in the magnetic field
whatis Einstein's universal law of gravitation? any 2 objects with mass in universe exert a gravitational pull on one another
what is Einstein's theory of relativity? space and time are the fabric of the universe
what is wave-particle duality? all matter have mass and transfer energy
define voltage difference in charge between two points
define current flow of electric charge
define resistance opposition of the passage of electric current
what causes as electrical current? loose electrons
contrast parallel and series circuits parallel have more pathways; series have one
what three atomic particles make up an atom? proton, neutron, electron
define atomic number # of protons in the nucleus
define mass number # of protons and neutrons
define isotope different forms of the same element; different numbers of neutrons
define valence electrons outer shell of electrons
what are the four main types of chemical bonding? ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, metallic
what is ionic bonding between metal and nonmetal; metal gives to nonmetal
what is nonpolar covalent bonding? 2 of same nonmetal; electrons are shared
what is polar covalent bonding? 2 nonmetals; unequal sharing
is ammonia organic or inorganic? inorganic
is salt organic or inorganic? inorganic
is sugar organic or inorganic? organic
is DNA organic or inorganic? organic
what are some signs that a chemical change has occurred? gas or bubbles, heat, light, sound, change in color, taste, or smell
describe a homogenous mixture components are uniformly distributed; air, blood, sugar water
describe a heterogenous mixture components are not uniform; rocks, oil and water, soup, pizza
define a solution a liquid mixture
define a solute dissolved into the solvent
define a solvent able to dissolve other substances
what happens to the motion of particles in a substance as you heat it? motion increases and speeds up, expansion
what happens to the motion of particles in a substance as you cool it? movement is slowed, condensation
define reactants undergoes change in a reaction
define products formed during a reaction
explain the law of conservation of mass mass cannot be created or destroyed
what is a mole in chemistry unit of measurement used to express amounts of a substance
what is an acid? sour taste, react w/ bases to form salt
what is a base? bitter taste, reacts w/ acids to form salts
what is oxidation? chemically combining with oxygen
what is reduction? gaining of electrons
what is a period on the periodic table? horizontal row
what is a group or family on the periodic table? a vertical column
where are metals located on the periodic table? on the left and middle
where are nonmetals located on the periodic table? upper right side
where are metalloids on the periodic table? along the line between metals and nonmetals
where are alkali metals located on the periodic table? group 1
where are alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table? group 2
where are the transition metals on the periodic table? groups 3-12
where are the chalcogens located on the periodic table? group 16
where are the halogens located on the periodic table? group 17
where are noble gases located on the periodic table? group 18
what is the formula for momentum? momentum=mass x velocity
what happens during an elastic collision between two objects of the same mass? equal transfer of momentum
what happens during an elastic collision between two objects of different masses? 1/2 of momentum is transferred
what happens during an inelastic collision between two objects? momentum is transferred
what are transverse waves? perpendicular to wave
what type of waves are light, water, and s-waves? transverse
what are longitudinal waves? compression and expansion
what type of waves are sound and p-waves? longitudinal
how do you know if a chemical change has occurred? change in color, change in energy, new state of matter, change in properties
is dissolving sugar into water a physical change or a chemical change? physical
what is an element? a substance made up of only one type of atom
what is an amu? an atomic mass unit
what is in the nucleus of an atom? protons and neutrons
what is in the electron cloud of an atom? electrons
describe a neutral atom an atom that has an equal number of protons and electrons
explain the energy levels of electron shells first shell: 2 second and third shell: 8 fourth and fifth shell: 16
what are valence electrons? electons in the outermost shell?
what are isotopes? same atomic number, different mass numbers; different # of neutrons
Created by: cgibbs906