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PT EVAL 3

PT EVAL 3 REVIEW

QuestionAnswer
What is NORMAL RANGE for a PTs HEART RATE? 60-100/min
What term would be used to describe a HEART RATE of 120/min? What would this indicate? Tachycardia >100 Indicates Hypoxemia, Anxiety, Stress
What term would be used to describe a pulse of 47/min? What would this indicate? Bradycardia <60 Indicates Heart Failure, Shock, Code/Emergency
What does paradoxical pulse/pulsus paradoxus indicate? Pulse/Blood Pressure Varies with Respiration. May indicate Severe Air Trapping (Status Asthmaticus or Cardiac Tamponade)
Causes of tracheal deviation Pulled to ABNORMAL side TOWARD PATHOLOGY Pulmonary Atelectasis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Pneumonectomy, Diaphragmatic Paralysis
Causes of tracheal deviation Pulled to NORMAL side TOWARD PATHOLOGY Massive Pleural Effusion, Tension Pneumothorax, Neck or Thyroid Tumors, Large Mediastinal Mass
What is tactile fremitus? Vibrations that are felt by the hand on the chest wall
What is meant by tenderness? PT Skin may be tender around sutures, Chest Tubes, Bruises, Fractured Bones and Burns; Avoid Areas of Tenderness if possible
What is meant by crepitus and what condition is it associated with? Bubbles of Air Under the Skin that can be Palpated and Indicates the Presence of Subcutaneous Emphysema
Describe the normal appperance of each of the following structures on a chest x-ray HEMIDIAPHRAGMS Are Rounded (Dome-Shaped)
Describe the normal appperance of each of the following structures on a chest x-ray TRACHEA is Midline, Bilateral Radiolucency, with Sharp Costophrenic Angles
Describe the normal appperance of each of the following structures on a chest x-ray CLAVICLES Head of ClAVICLES Should Be Level
List THREE possible causes for LOSS OF AIRWAY PATENCY Foreign Body Obstruction, Edema as Seen with Croup, Epiglottitis or Allergic Reactions, Tracheal Spasms, Internal or External Compression, Truma Leading to Air leak
What condition cause OBLITERATION of the COSTOPHRENIC ANGLES? Angle made by the outer curve of the diaphragm and chest wall. These angles are Obliterated by Pleural Effusions
In what pathology is the diaphragm flattened? Flattened with COPD, Left or Right Hemidiaphragms may shift downward with a pneumothorax; appearing Flattened on one side
Describe each of the following positions used for chest x-rays LATERAL POSITION Projection from either the right or left side, Adds a third dimension to structures viewed on AP or PA films
Describe each of the following positions used for chest x-rays LATERAL DECUBITUS PT Lying on the Affected Side, Valuable for Detecting Small Pleural Effusions
Where should the tip of the endotracheal tube be positioned when viewed on a chest roentgenogram? Should be Positioned below the Vocal Cords and no Closer Than 2cm or 1 in above the Carina. Approximately at the same level of the aortic Knob or Aortic Arch
What is the quickest way to determine adequate Ventation following endotracheal intubation? Observation and Auscultation
Describe where each of the following should be located when positioned properly CHEST TUBE Should be Located in the Pleural Space Surrounding the Lung
Describe where each of the following should be located when positioned properly NASOGASTRIC and FEEDING TUBE Should be Positioned in the Stomach 2-5cm below the Diaphragm
Describe where each of the following should be located when positioned properly PULMONARY ARTERY CATHETER Should Appear in the Right Lower Lung Field
Describe where each of the following should be located when positioned properly PACEMAKER Should be Normally Positioned in the Right Ventricle
Describe where each of the following should be located when positioned properly CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER Are Placed in the Right or Left Subclavian or Jugular Vein and Should Rest in the Vena Cava or Right Atrium of the Heart
What diagnostic test is appropriate for determining an upper airway obstruction in a child? A Lateral Neck X-Ray (croup and epiglottis)
Briefly describe each of the following condition CROUP A Viral Disorder Common in Infants and Young Children, X-ray will reveal Tracheal Narrowing with Subglottic Swelling in a Classic Pattern called; Steeple Sign, Picket Fence Sign, Pencil Point Sign
Briefly describe each of the following condition EPIGLOTTIS A Potentially Life-Threating Inflammation of the Supraglottic Airway caused by a Bacterial Infection, Lateral Neck X-ray Shows Supraglottic Narrowing with an Enlarged and Flattened Epiglottis and Swollen Aryepiglottic Folds
Describe the normal appearance of each of the following structures on a chest x-ray RIGHT HEMIDIAPHRAGMS Slightly Higher than the Left, is at the level of the Sixth Anterior Rib
Describe a CT Scan An X-ray through a specific plane of the body part to be examined. Images as narrow slices of the organ or body part
With What Pathologies Would a CT be indicated? Useful in detecting the presence of a Mediastinal Mass, Pleural and Parenchymal Masses and Pulmonary Nodules and Lesions not Visualized on a Chest X-Ray
What Special type of CT Scan is indicated to diagnose a Pulmonary Embolus? A spiral CT scan with contrast dye may be used
What is advantage of using MRI over a conventional X-ray? Magnetic Resonance imaging is used to obtain Two-Dimensional Views of an organ or structure without the use of radiation
What type of Ventilators are used with MRI and why? Fluidic(non-electric, gas powered)Ventilators are used for PT requiring Mechanical Ventilation because the magnetic fields would disrupt electronic devices
Describe how this test is performed Pulmonary Ventilation/Perfusion Scans (V/Q Scan) Radioisotope(xenon gas) is inhaled and the location of the gas is recorded producing a photographic pattern of distribution throughout the lungs
What is indicated by normal Ventilation with Abnormal Perfusion Pulmonary Emboli
What are three indications for a barium test? abnormalities in the Hypopharynx, Esophagus or Stomach
What is the main indication for bronchography
List two hazards of a bronchography
A PET scan would be useful to help diagnose what conditions
A EEG is indicated to assess activity of the __
This test is indicated to diagnose what pathology
Briefly describe when echocardiography would be indicated and what can be measured with the two different types of procedures
What is the normal range for ICP
Treatment is recommended when ICP increases above what level
Define Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CCP)
What is the Formula to Calculate CPP
What is the Normal Value for CPP
What is exhaled nitric oxide (NIOX) testing used for
What does a decrease in PT FENO level suggest
Created by: Cam1228