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Pharmacology

Module 2 AEDs Slide 19-30

QuestionAnswer
An alteration in behavior, function, and/or consciousness that results from an abnormal electrical discharge of neurons in the brain. Seizure pg 490 (M2/16)
Used to describe chronic unprovided recurrent seizures. Epilepsy pg 490 (M2/16)
Treatment chosen for seizure disorder depends on type of seizure; thus, the correct diagnosis of seizure disorder is imperative. True or False? True, pg 490 (M2/16)
Type of seizure with no immediate cause. Unprovoked seizure 490 (M2/16)
This type of seizure occurs due to trauma, metabolic abnormalities, high fever, drug abuse or alcohol intoxication, etc. Provoked seizure 490 (M2/16)
Psychological in origin and occurs due to severe stress or emotional trauma. Non-epileptic (pseudoseizures) 490 (M2/16)
Most common in children and etiology is unknown in most cases. Seizures (M2/17) 490
Seizures are classified according to which part of the ________ is affected. brain 490 (M2/17)
What are the 8 mechanisms of action for AED Classes? hydantoins, GABA analogs, carbamazepine, _____ _______ ______ Pregabalin topiramate 1)Hydantoins 2)GABA Analogs 3)Carbamazepine 4)Barbiturates 5)Benzodiazepines 6)Carbamazepine 7)Barbiturates 8)Benzodiazepines 9)Gabapentin 10)Pregabalin 11)Topiramate 490-491 (M2/18)
Works at the primary motor cortex to block sodium channels in the neurons which decreases hyperexcitability. HYDANTOINS 490 (M2/18)
Believed to increase the actions GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) and inhibit sodium channels which stablize the membranes of the neuron. GABA Analogs 490 (M2/18)
Inhibits depolarization of neurons by binding to GABA receptors, which enhances transmission of chloride ions. They also increase the seizure threshold of the motor cortex of the brain. Barbiturates 491 (M2/18)
Increase Chloride channels, which diminished seizure activity. Benzodiazepines 491 (M2/18)
Majority can be prescribed together if multiple AEDs are needed to control seizures. AEDs (M2/18)
Focal motor or sensory symptoms; reflects area of brain affected; no change in consciousness. Simple partial seizure 490 (M2/19)
characterized by an aura, followed by impaired consciousness with automatisms, usually originating from temporaral lobe Complex partial seizure 490 (M2/19)
Simple or complex partial seizures that progress to generalized tonic-clinic seizures Secondarily generalized 490 (M2/19)
Formerly grand mal; sudden LOC w tonic-clonic motor activity; postictal state of confusion, drowsiness and headache Generalized tonic-clonic 490 (M2/19)
Formerly petit mal; brief (<30 seconds) episodes of unresponsiveness characterized by staring, blinking, or facial twitching. Absence 490 (M2/19)
series of brief jerky contractions of specific muscle groups Myoclonic 490 (M2/19)
Unable to control with other medications Refractory 490 (M2/19)
What are the DOC of partial (focal, local),partial simple,partial complex,partial seizures w secondary generalization and partial seizures? Carbamazepine (Tegretol) lamotigine oxcarbazepine levitiracetam CLOL 490 (M2/19)
Valproate (Depakene lamotigine levetiracetam What type of seizure are these the DOC for? Generalized convulsive (M2/19)490
What are the DOC for generalized nonconvulsive, absence, petit mal seizures? Ethosuximide (Zarontin) Valproate 490 (M2/19)
Patients with status epilepticus who are given midazolam through an autoinjector rather than IV lorazepam are more likely to be seizure free by the time they arrive at the hospital and are also less likely to require hospitalizeion. True or False? True 492
What are the 3 classes of AEDs (Anti-epileptic Drugs) with key drugs? 1)Phenytoin (Dilantin 2)Ethosuximide (Zarontin) 3)Valproic acid (Depakene), Divalproex sodium (Depakote), Gabapentin (Neurontin), Lamotigine (Lamictal), Pregabalin (Lyrica) 1)Hydantoin 2)Succinimide 3)GABA analogs Note:GABA also includes Topiramate (Topamax) (M2/20) 488
What are the 3 classes of AEDs (Anti-epileptic Drugs) with key drugs? 1)Phenobarbital (Luminal) & Topiramate (Topamax) 2)Diazepam (Valium)&Primidone (Mysoline) 3)Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Epitol), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), &levetiracetam (Keppra) 1)Barbiturates 2)Benzodiazepines 3)Miscellaneous (M2/20) 488
What DOC is used for generalized convulsive? VALPROATE lamotrigine levetiracetam S114
What DOC is used for partial, including simple, complex and secondarily generalized seizures? CARBAMAZEPINE lamotrigine oxcarbazepine levetiracetam S114
What DOC is used for generalized nonconvulsive seizures? ETHOSUXIMIDE VALPROATE S114
What are the six DOC for all major types of seizures? VALPROATE lamotrigine levetiracetam CARBAMAZEPINE oxcarbazepine ETHOSUXIMIDE S114 VOL LEC
Associated with elevated liver enzymes, nausea and vomiting, and weight gain. It can also produce a tremor. VALPROATE S114 (M2/22)
Causes autoinduction of its own metabolism. Induces enzymes that metabolize it. Associated with granulocyte suppression and aplastic anemia. CARBAMAZEPINE S114 (M2/26)
DOC in management of absence seizures. Associated with stomach aches, vomiting and hiccups. ETHOSUXIMIDE (Zarontin) S114 (M2/21)
Blocks calcium channels in the thalamus. Zarontin ETHOSUXIMIDE S114 (M2/21)
Which drug has zero-order kinetics, may develop nystagmus/ataxia w higher doses, symptoms of hirsutism, gigival hyperplasia, and coarsening of facial features may develop? Dilantin PHENYTOIN - Hydantoins Class S115 (M2/21)
An alternative drug for the treatment of generalized nonconvulsive seizures. Long acting benzo. CYP 450 3A4 partial substrate. Clonzaepam (Klonopin) S116 (M2/27)
Shake oral suspension before each dose or ______ will differ in suspension. amount (M2/21)
Gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, and oxcarbazepine have _______ as _________ in newly diagnosed adolescents & adults w partial or mixed seizure disorders. efficacy, monotherapy 491 (M2/23?)
Defined as two or more seizures that occur without complete recovery of neurologic function between seizures or as continuous seizure activity for longer than 5 minutes. STATUS EPILEPTICUS (SE) 492
What is the effective prevention of febrile seizures in children, although long-term prophylactic treatment for febrile seizures is not recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics? Phenobarbital (Luminal)-Barbiturate 492 (M2/28)
What drug is first line for infants with spasms? Vigabatrin 493 (M2/28)
What drugs are not effective for febrile seizures in pediatrics? Phenytoin and carbamazepine 495
All antiepileptics have been associated with an increase in birth defects. True or False? True 495 (M2/28)
AED's associated with ________ disorder in the neonates ( bleeding may occur in first 24 hours after birth). coagulation 495 (M2/28)
Created by: mareed3
 

 



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