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Pharmacology

Module 2 Neurotransmitters Slide 1-13

QuestionAnswer
Special cell of the nervous system Neuron (M2/3)
Transmit impulses from body of cell through axon to dendrite for the synapse Neurons (M2/3)
May be covered with myelin sheath (enhances conduction) Axon (M2/3)
What kind of cell forms myelin sheath around single axon in pheripheral nervous system? Schwann cell (M2/3)
What is an un-myelinated portion of the axon between nodes? Node of Ranvier (M2/3)
Myelin sheath _________ conduction velocity by causing depolarization across one or more nodes. increases (M2/3)
What separates each nerve cell by space? synapse (M2/3)
What are chemicals called which transmit signal from one neuron to the next? Neurotransmitters (M2/3)
Synthesized in cell body or nerve terminal of presynaptic neuron. Neurotransmitters (M2/4)
Released from synapse and crosses synaptic cleft. Dendrite on nerve cell body receives signal. Neurotransmitters (M2/4)
Do all receptors on post-synaptic membrane of dendrite accept neurotransmitters? no, Different receptors but only certain ones (M2/4)
Which five diseases are helped with pharmacotherapeutic agents which can modify levels of neurotransmitters? 1)Depression 2)Neurologic diseases 3)Dementia 4)Parkinson's 5)Seizures (M2/5)
Brain Chemicals that assist us in communicating information and relays signals between neurons (nerve cells) Neurotransmitters (M2/6)
What can be inhibitory or excitatory? Neurotransmitters (M2/6)
Affects most body processes such as heart beat, respiration, digestion, concentration, weight, etc. Neurotransmitters (M2/6)
Estimated _______ Americans have suboptimal levels of neurotransmitters due to poor _____, stress, ______ ______,________, medications, _______, and caffeine use,_________etc. 86%, diet,sleep deprivation,genetics, alcohol, neurotoxins (M2/6)
These calm the brain, create balance, balance mood, and can be depleted with too much excitatory neurotransmitters. INHIBITORY neurotransmitters (M2/8)
What are the 4 types of inhibitory neurotransmitters? 1)GABA 2)Glycine 3)Dopamine 4)Serotonin GGDS (M2/8)
What inhibitory neurotransmitter need enough to produce a stable mood and balance excessive excitatory (stimulating) neurotransmitter firing in the brain? SEROTONIN (M2/9)
Regulates sleep cycle, carb carvings, pain control an digestion. Serotonin, inhibitory Neurotransmitter (M2/9)
Use of stimulants (caffeine/other meds) can lead to depletion and low levels are associated with decreased immunity for this neurotransmitter. Serotonin inhibitory neurotransmitter (M2/9)
Nature's Valium GABA (M2/9)
What neurotransmitter becomes depleted when an excitatory neurotransmitter is firing too often in the brain? GABA, inhibitory neurotransmitter (M2/9)
GABA is sent out to try to balance out the over-firing stimulation. True or False? True (M2/9)
Which inhibitory neurotransmitter can be both inhibitory and excitatory? Dopamine (M2/9)
Which inhibitory neurotransmitter helps with depression and focus? Dopamine (M2/9)
What are the three excitatory neurotransmitters? 1)Norepinephrine 2)Epinephrine 3)Dopamine NED (M2/10)
__________ controls movement, primitive functions such as certain emotions and visceral functions. Dopamine (M2/11)
__________ primarily responsible for focus. Dopamine, so if low - forget, don't remember, can't stay on task (M2/11)
____________ responsible for motivation. Dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter (M2/11)
So medications for ______/______ as well as _____ cause dopamine to be pushed into synapse which results in improved focus. ADD/ADHD, caffeine (M2/11)
If we constantly stimulate dopamine it can get _________. depleted (M2/11)
___________ helps to make epinephrine. Norepinephrine (M2/11)
Norepinehrine affects memory, information processing, emotions, psychomotor function, energy, movement, BP, HR, ____ _____, and _____. bladder emptying, attention (M2/11)
Norepineprine can cause __________ when high and mood dampening effect. anxiety (M2/11)
Low levels results in decreased energy, focus, and ____ _____ ______ etc. sleep cycle issues (M2/11)
What excitatory neurotransmitter regulates heart rate and blood pressure and attention - is reflective of stress? Epinephrine (M2/11)
Epinephrine is ________ when ADHD is present. elevated (M2/11)
Long term stress or insomnia can deplete this excitatory neurotransmitter. Epinephrine (M2/11)
The ______ _______ _______ controls involuntary smooth muscle and gland activity. Autonomic Nervous system (M2/12)
The ANS has two agonist systems called ________ and ________. sympathetic, parasympathetic (M2/12)
Which ANS is fight or flight and prepares to expend energy? Sympathetic (M2/12)
Neurotransmitter ____________ (adrenaline) is related at postganglionic fibers in the sympathetic ANS. norepinephine (M2/12)
What are the two types of adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic ANS? Alpha and beta (M2/12)
Which ANS prepares body for energy conversation and primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE? Parasympathetic (M2/12)
What type of medications block action of acetylcholine and interfere with parasympathetic nervous system? Anticholinergic (M2/12)
_____________ functions include voluntary movement, autonomic system regulation of target organs, eye, heart, GI tract, salivary glands, sweat glands, and __________. Acetylcholine, memory (M2/13)
Which receptors are acted on by acetylcholine? Nicotinic receptors in the peripheral nervous system and Muscarinic in the brain as well as autonomic target organs. (M2/13)
Created by: mareed3
 

 



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