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Vertebral Column

What is another name for the adams apple? Thyroid Cartilage
How many bones in an adult vertebral column? Child? 26, 33
Looking at a patient in the PA position, what curves are concave and which are convex? Convex- thoracic, Sacral. Concave- Cervical, Lumbar
what part of the vertebrae extends posteriorly and forms the arch? pedicle
How many articular processes are there on a vertebrae? 4, 2 superior, 2 inferior
What are the 3 typical joints of the vertebrae? Intervertebral, Z-joint, Costal
What joint comes from the 4 articular processes which project from the junction of the pedicle and the laminae? Zygapophyseal joint or "z-joint"
where are the costal joints found? on the Thoracic vertebrae
What is formed by the superior and inferior notches of the vertebrae pedicles when joined in the spinal column? intervertebral foramen
What provides passage way for the spinal nerves and vessels? intervertebral foramen
What are the 2 parts of the intervertebral disk? Annulus fibrous - outer, Nucleus pulpous - inner
What are the 3 unique characteristics of a cervical vertebrae? Transverse foramen, bifid spinous process, overlapping vertebral bodies
What projection shows Z-joints the best? Lateral projections
What projection shows intervertebral foramen the best? Oblique
what are the functions of the vertebral column? provides support for the trunk, protects the spinal cord, supports the skull, and provides attachment for the deep muscles of the back and for the ribs laterally.
what indirectly supports the upper limbs? the ribs, via the sternum
which articulation supports the trunk and distributes weight? Sacroiliac join (SI)
what is the function of a vertebral disk? act as a cushion
what kind of bone is a vertebrae? irregular bone
How many true vertebrae are there?? Which ones are they? 24, C/s T/s L/s
what are "false" vertebrae? Sacrum & Coccyx
The C and L spine are convex anteriorly, that is know as what kind of curve? Lordotic Curves
The T and Pelvic spine are concave anteriorly, that is know as what kind of curve? Kyphotic Curve
the lumbosacral angle form what kind of angle? obtuse angle
What are the primary curves? Thoracic and pelvic curves
what are the compensatory curves? Cervical and Lumbar
At what age does a child develop the curve of the C spine? 3-4 months or when child starts to hold their head up
At what age does a child develop the curve of the L spine? when they begin to walk 1-1 1/2
what sex are the lumbar and pelvic curves more pronounced in? Females the LS joint is a more acute angle
what is the least prominent curve of the spine? C-Spine
What condition causes the vertebrae to rotate toward the concavity? Scoliosis
what are the two main parts of the vertebrae? body and vertebral arch
What forms the vertebral canal? vertebral foramina
Describe the vertebral body from the lateral and superior aspects. The lateral it is concave, superior is the posterior aspect is flattened
what covers the superior and inferior surface of the body of the vertebrae? articular cartilage
what length do the vertebral disks make up of your spine? 1/4th of it
What happens when you "slip a disk"? Your nucleus pulposus ruptures and bulges into the spinal canal pressing on the spinal nerve. HNP "herniated nucleus puplosus
what area does HNP most often happen? L spine but can also happen in the C-spine due to trauma
what is the first posterior part of the vertebrae? Pedicles
what creates intervertebral foramina? Intervertebral notches
what travels through the intervertebral foramina? Spinal nerves and blood vessles
What projects laterally and slightly posterior from the lamina and the pedicles? Transverse process
what projects from the posterior midline of the vertebrae? spinous process
what congenital defect is it when the laminae fail to unite posterior at the midline? Spinal bifida
what covers the superior and inferior articular processes? fibrocartlige called facets
what is another name for Z joints? interarticulate facet joints
what structures make up the Atlas vertebrae? anterior, posterior arch, 2 lateral masses and 2 transverse processes
Which c-spine has the longest transverse processes? Atlas/C1
where is the Axis received in the atlas? anterior portion of the atlantal ring
what projection will show you the Z joints of c1 and c2? AP projection
where are the transverse foramina found and what do they transmit? In the C-spine and they transmit vertebral artery and vein.
how many foramina do the cervical vertebrae have? 3 total, two transverse and one vertebral
what is located posterior to the transverse processes at the point where the pedicles and the lamina unite? (2 things, c-spine) superior and inferior processes
At what degree do the Z joints of the C-spine lie and what projection best visualizes them? 90* and a Lateral
At what degree do the intervertebral foramina of the C-spine lie and what projection best visualizes them? 45* and 15 degrees inferior. An oblique projection w/ 45* medial rotation with a 15* cephalad angle
what are the typical t-spine bodies? (numbers) T3-T9
costal facets are located where? T1-T12
where an how many demifacets do each T-spine vertebrae have? T1- 1 inferior order for articulation with head of 2nd rib, T2-T8 have one inferiorly and one superiorly. T9- one superior, T10-12 have single whole facet at superior margin
Which transverse processes of the T-spine do not project laterally, obliquely and posteriorly? T11 & T12
the palpable tip of the spinous process of the T-spine corresponds to what? The interspace below the vertebra from which it projects
To visualize the Z joints of the T-spine how must the pt be rotated? 15-20 from lateral position or 70-75* from midsagittal plane
At what degree do the Intervertebral foramina of the T-spine lie and what projection best visualizes them? 90* true lateral
The anteriolateral surface of what vertebrae is concave from top to bottom? Lumbar body
True of False, The T-spine has bigger transverse processes than the L-spine? Ture
Which pair of L spine transverse process are almost exactly lateral? L1-L3
where is the mammillary process located? Superior to each articular process on the L spine
which L/s is wedge shaped? L5
What is the part of the L-spine lamina that is between the superior and inferior articular processes? Par interarticularis
To visualize the Z joints of the L-spine how must the pt be rotated? And what is the tube angle? 30-60* oblique, 15* cephalad. L1-L2 = 30* L2-L3=45* L4-L5=60*
At what degree do the Intervertebral foramina of the L-spine lie and what projection best visualizes them? L1-L4 = 90* true lateral, L5= 15* rotation
What is spondylolisthesis? Slippage of usually the Lumbar vertebrae pars interarticularis, where one vertebrae overlaps another one.
What projection do you do to see if there is spondylolisthesis? Scottie dog, "oblique projection to show the neck"
In the female sacrum where is most of the curvature? the bottom half.
where is the sacral promitory? the superior anterior margin of the base of the sacrum
how many pairs of sacral foramina are there and what do they have flowing through them? 4 sacral blood vessles and nerves.
what is the large wing like mass of the sacrum called? ala
where is the sacral cornu located? the apex of the sacrum posteriorly
what are and what type of joints are intervertebral joints? Joints between the two vertebral bodies and are cartilaginous sympathies joints which are only slightly movable
what are and what type of joints are Z joints? They are jounts between the articulation processes of the vertebral arches and are synovial gliding joint which are freely movable
What type of articulation is between the atlas and occipital bone? synovial ellipsoidal called the atlantooccipital articulation
What type of articulation is between the atlas and dens? it is an atlantoaxial joint which is a synovial gliding articulation and a synovial piviot articulation as well.
What type of articulation are costovertebral joints? synovial gliding
What is a jefferson's Fx? comminuted Fx if the ring of C1
What is a hangman's Fx? Fx od the anterior arch of C2, owing to hyper extension
What is a clay shoveler's Fx? Avusion Fx of the spinous process in the lower cervical and upper thoracic region
What is a Ankylosing spondylitis? Rheumatoid arthritis variant involving the sacroiliac joints and spine
what is osteopetrosis? increase density of atypically soft bone
what is pagent's disease? Thick, soft bone marked by bowing and Fx's
what is spondylolisthesis? anterior displacement of one vertebrae on another
What is spondylosis? breaking down of a the vertebrae and fixation or fusion of a verebrae
where does the CR enter the patient on a PA oblique projections of the Sacroiliac joint? 1 inch medial to ASIS closer to the IR
where does the CR enter the patient on a AP oblique projections of the Sacroiliac joint? 1 inch medial to elevated ASIS
What does the neck of the "scottie dog" represent? pars interarticularis
what projection of the C spine should precede Flex/Ext position? Lateral C spine
What does the Ear of the Scottie dog represent? superior articular process
What does the LEG of the Scottie dog represent? inferior articular process
what is the grandy method? It's another name for Lateral C-spine
What does the eye of the scottie dog represent? pedicle
what level of the spine is the inferior rib margin? L2
Created by: christina325