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Chapter 18 vocab

mechanical wave a disturbance in matter that carries energy from one place to another
medium the material through which a wave travels
crest the highest point of a wave above the rest position
trough the lowest point below the rest position
transverse wave wave that causes the medium to vibrate at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels
compression An area where the particles in a medium are spaced close together
rarefaction An area where the particles in a medium are spaced out
longitudinal wave wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction the wave travels
surface wave wave that travels along a surface separating two media
periodic motion Any motion that repeats at regular time intervals
period The time required for one cycle, a complete motion that returns to its starting points
frequency the number of complete cycles that pass a point in a given time
hertz meters per second that frequency is measured in
wavelength the distance between a point on one wave and the same point on the next cycle of the wave
amplitude maximum displacement of the medium from its rest position
reflection occurs when a wave bounces off a surface that it cannot pass through
refraction the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle
diffraction the bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine together
constructive interference occurs when two or more waves combine to produce a wave with a larger displacement
destructive intereference occurs when two or more waves combine to produce a wave with a smaller displacement
standing wave a wave that appears to stay in one place
node a point on a standing wave that has no displacement from the rest position
antinode a point where a crest or trough occurs midway between two nodes
sound waves are longitudinal waves
intensity the rate at which a wave's energy flows through a given area
decibal is a unit that compares the intensity of different sounds
loudness a physical response to the intensity of sound, modified by physical factors
pitch the frequency of a sound as you perceive it
sonar a technique for determining the distance to an object under water
Doppler effect a change in sound frequency caused by motion of the sound source, motion of listener, or both.
resonance the response of a standing wave to another wave of the same frequency
electromagnetic waves transverse waves consisting of changing electric fields and changing magnetic fields
electric field in a region of space exerts electrical forces on charged particles
magnetic field in a region of space produces magnetic forces
electromagnetic radiation The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves traveling through matter or across space
photoelectric effect the emission of electrons from a metal caused by light striking
photons packets of electromagnetic energy
intensity the rate at which a waves energy flows through a given unit of area
electromagnetic spectrum The full range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
amplitude modulation the amplitude of the wave is varied
frequency modulation the frequency of the wave is varied
thermograms color-coded pictures that show variations in tempurature
transparent material that transmits light
translucent material that scatters light
opaque material that either absorbs or reflects all of the light that strikes it
image a copy of an object formed by reflected waves of light
regular reflection occurs when parallel light waves strike a surface and reflect all in the same direction
diffuse reflection occurs when parallel light eaves strike a rough, uneven surface, and reflect all in the same direction
mirage a false or distorted image
polarized light light with waves that vibrate in only one plane
scattering light is redirected as it passes through a medium
dispersion the process in which white light separates into colors
primary colors three specific colors that combine in varying amounts to create all possible colors
secondary color a combination of two primary colors
complimentary colors of light any two colors of light that combine to form white light
pigment a material that absorbs some colors of light and reflects others
complimentary colors of pigment any two colors of pigments that combine to make black pigment
Created by: kenidee.zentiska