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Unit 14

Radioactivity Vocab

TermDefinition
radioactivity the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
transmutation – in radioactive beta decay the neutron decays into an electron and a proton.
half life – the time required for one half the atoms of a given amount of a radioactive substance to disintegrate.
alpha particle the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by atomic nuclei decay resulting in the loss of a 4/2He (helium particle)
beta particle a fast moving electron emitted by radioactive decay of substances. In decay the loss of the electron causes an increase of 1 proton while the mass stays the same.
gamma ray light energy emitted by radioactive decay of substances. The most dangerous of all radiation. The decay does not change the mass or the number of protons.
isotopes each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element
list What are some uses of radiation other than power plants and atomic weapons?
fission the act of dividing or splitting a heavy nucleus spontaneously or on impact with another particle to release energy
fusion -the process of joining together the atomic nuclei of a low atomic number to form a heavier nucleus and the release of energy
do Write the equation for uranium-238 to decay using one of each of these Alpha, Beta, Gamma
Geiger counter - a device for measuring radioactivity by detecting and counting ionizing particles.
photographic detection In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify high-energy particles,
radioactive waste - wastes that contain radioactive material.
list symptoms what are the health hazards of radiation?
Write the equation to decay Uranium - 235 to release 2 alpha particles and a gamma particle
Write the equation to decay Potassium - 40 to release a beta and an alpha particle
Nuclear chain reaction A series of nuclear fissions (splitting of atomic nuclei), each initiated by a neutron produced in a preceding fission. For example, 3 neutrons are released by the fission of a uranium-235 nucleus that will continue to split additional molecules.