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Phys Sci Mike

Intro physical science Pierce College

Define physical properties properties of materials that can be measured without changing the identity, or composition,of the material.
Define physical changes changes in a material's size, shape, and physical state
Define particle smallest piece of a material
Describe the particle behavior of a solid. the particles are fixed and vibrate in place
Describe the particle behavior of a liquid particles in a liquid can slide past one another
Describe the particle behavior in a gas particles move about freely with the exception of particle collisions
What is electrostatic force, aka van der Waal's force? the natural attraction between the particles of liquids and solids
What determines the particle spacing and motion of particles in a material? the strength of attraction between particles of a matierial (which also determines the state of matter solid, liquid, or gas)
Define density and give the formula for calculating density. the mass of material contained in each unit volume of the material. D = m/v
Name the 2 ways you can find the relative density of a material. 1. Comparing the mass of equal volumes of two or more materials (using a balance) 2. Observing whether the materials sink or float in one another or in a reference fluid such as water
Aside from mass and volume of particles, what else contributes to a material's density? the strength of the electrostatic force between particles
What causes the difference in densities between liquids and solids? the particle masses and attractive forces between particles differs depending upon the material, causing different densities
Define heating curve. graph plotting temperature vs. time when a substance in constantly heated and changed from a solid to a gas
What do the 3 slanted lines in a heating curve represent? warming of the solid, melting point, and boiling point
An increase in the average kinetic energy of the particles during heating causes an _______ in _______ energy which is evident by an increase in temperature. increase; thermal
Define thermal expansion. An increase in the volume of a liquid or solid.
Define thermal contraction. A decrease in the volume of a liquid or solid.
As the average kinetic energy of the particles increases during heating, they move ____er and further apart and the potential energy of the particle system ________s. faster; increases
Define specific heat. the amount of energy (in units of calories) associated with changing the temperature of 1 gram of a material by 1 degree Celsius.
A lower specific heat is represented by a _______ sloped line on the heating/cooling curve or a ____er rate of temperature change when heated/cooled. steeper; faster
A higher specific heat is represented by a ____ steep sloped line on the heating/cooling curve or a ____er rate of temperature change when heated/cooled. less; slower
At the macroscopic level, explain how heating or cooling a material affects the mass, volume, and density. the mass is unchanged; volume changes during expansion.contraction; change in volume changes the density of the material
When heating (or cooling) a material consisting of two states either a solid/liquid or liquid/gas the temperature does/does not change. At the microscopic level there is/ is no change in the average kinetic energies of the particles. does not; is no
How does an increase in potential energy of particles when heated affect a material's state of matter? can change material from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas.
Created by: 1353475628